University of Khartoum

حرفة الطوب الأحمر بمنطقة الجريف شرق

حرفة الطوب الأحمر بمنطقة الجريف شرق

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Title: حرفة الطوب الأحمر بمنطقة الجريف شرق
Author: اسعد عبدالرحمن عوض الله, عوض الل
Abstract: This is an integral research study to meet the requirements for obtaining master degree in folklore. The study shows that manufacturing red bricks is one of the important crafts in the area since it has a significant social and economic role in the life of the inhabitants. Reviewing the literature of this study shows that the craft is one of the cultural heritages that were formed by the area environment. Looking thoroughly in the depth of the previous studies has revealed that indicators were mentioned in texts of some archaeological and historical studies talking about sequential stages of ancient history of the Sudan, in which we namely mention a study of AHMED MOHAMED ALI HAKIM and CHARLES BONNET about Kerma as they stated that using red bricks was started in the era of kerma more than four thousand years ago. They confirmed a fact that it is the first evidence of using red bricks in the history of the River Nile. Since then the craft continued to exist until today. The researcher focused on this evidence to ensure the historical depth of the craftsmanship and reviewed many other studies conducted by other scholars in the fields of engineering sciences, architecture and geography that focused on the contemporary craft, just in terms of technical, environmental and physical aspects. In the field of folklore, no studies on the red bricks manufacturing were found, thus this study conducted by the researcher is different from the previous ones. It depends on the methodologies of studying the material culture, taking in consideration that the craft is a significant factor in regard with the components which line in the area's environment system. The researcher has adopted the functional descriptive methodology based on collecting the data from the area where the traditional craft is practiced in the context of its environment. Collecting the data took place in the period from May first up to the end of June 2009. It worth mentioning that the study has involved a theoretical and methodological framework that discusses concepts of culture, material culture, traditional craft as xi well as its types, identifies the traditional craftsman and traditional craft and modernization thereto. The study also shed the light on the history of red bricks generally and in the area of study in particular, through tracing the consequent historical stages since Kerma's era until contemporary history to show the archaeological existence of the red brick craft. The study also pointed out definition to the study zone, the geographical site and community, its tribal components, cultural features and economic life based on exercising the craft and its importance for developing the community. The researcher presented a detailed description for the contemporary traditional craft tracing back its stages from the preparation of the raw material and until the final product of the red bricks which begins with the first step of deposition of the silt – the raw material - and then the second step is preparing the clay a step that called "the fermentation" by using animals waste mixed with water and clay to make a mild paste - like that easy to shape. In the third step the paste –like is to be formed by brick makers using tools, namely: a table and the mold, to produce un-baked bricks which in the fourth step dried by lining them up on a leveled sunny ground, while in the fifth step bricks will be placed in the furnace for singeing. In the last step the furnace is to be dismantled and bricks taken out and then classified. Here we notice that the natural environment is clearly controlling the production starting from the deposition of the clay - the raw material - which forms by floods and rain and then the fermentation by using water and animal waste and the next step which is drying it by the sun heat and burning it using wood for fuel as wind plays a significant role to flame it. The researcher also presented a description of all updating experiments that were made by the Institute of Roads and Construction Researches at the University of Khartoum under the title "Development of Red Brick Package" such as using a standard brick mold to form the brick or using bio-gas for burning instead of wood or using plants remains instead of wood or using the petroleum coal or testing the usage of the clay instead of the river silt. All these experiments have been conducted away from studying the traditional craft and without engaging traditional craftsmen who merely exercising the craft to gain from their opinions to execute these experiments. Through direct collecting of data from the field, the researcher has studied furnaces as tanks for the area's cultural heritage by shedding light on the components of that heritage in its natural, historical, social and economic xii environment. These components have formed these tanks which in turn formed the red brick as an important factor of the area's cultural heritage along with what linked to that craft such as norms, traditions, beliefs and oral literature. On the other hand, the researcher has assessed the upgraded experiments as well as its impact on the contemporary craft in terms of studying it. He therefore reached to a conclusion that all those experiments have failed and as we have mentioned before, they had taken place away from the situation of the craft and craftsmen themselves were not involved to benefit from their opinions. For example, if use gas for burning instead of wood we will discover that gas will melt the bricks because of its tense heating, also it's very difficult to control the temperature. For example, one of the experiments is that using agricultural waste instead of wood, but this fuel is connected to the planting season a matter that makes it unavailable all over the year. The reader shall find more details about other experiments in relevant parts of this study. The research concluded that the red bricks craftsmanship in the area of Geraif Sharg is directly linked with its natural, social, economic and historical production environment. It has a long rooted ancient history that continued throughout different historical eras, a matter that makes it shedding the light on the cultural history of the area. Thus the researcher has taken advantage of that to correct some many wrong concepts pointed out in the writings of some of the historiographers who wrote about the history of Khartoum, particularly Geraif Sharg area which stated that Turkish are those who introduced the craft to the region and taught the inhabitants how to deal with it. On the part of the updating experiments, the study recommends that development and improving this craft will not be accomplished unless objective study about reality of the craft is taking place accompanied by social and cultural dimensions. Therefore, the study is assuring the importance of this craft in terms of the process of developing the community.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/11665
Date: 2015-06-13


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