University of Khartoum

Elemental Profiles and Characterization of Air Particulate Matter across the Central Belt of Sudan

Elemental Profiles and Characterization of Air Particulate Matter across the Central Belt of Sudan

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Title: Elemental Profiles and Characterization of Air Particulate Matter across the Central Belt of Sudan
Author: Abubaker Sulyman, Ibrahim
Abstract: ABSTRACT The objectives of this study are to characterize aerosol particles, to measure the elemental and mass concentration levels of the aerosol particles and identify their sources in Gedaref, Khartoum, El Obeid, and Nyala which are located in the central belt of Sudan (CBS), In addition, the study investigated the black carbon (BC) concentration resulting from Khartoum petroleum refinery emissions. The sampling for (CBS) measurements was done from October 2008 to Marsh 2009 using two MiniVol Portable AirMetrics samplers. Two fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) of aerosol particles have been collected simultaneously, with 18 sampling hours per 24hr and 5-liters/hr flow rate. During the January 2010, PM sampling was carried out in northern area of Khartoum state to study the impacts of the black carbon emitted from Khartoum petroleum refinery. A comparison was made between concentration levels in the study area with data found in the literature and with the international permissible levels. The samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. BC concentration levels were measured by M43D Smoke Stain Reflectometer. The mass concentration of the fine and coarse particles were determined by gravimetry, and the measured concentration levels were discussed. Enrichment factors, linear regression and factor analysis were used to identify possible sources of aerosol particles in the (CBS). High levels of soil derived elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) were measured. The highest levels of BC were observed in Nyala and El Obeid. High BC concentration levels were observed in northern rural area of Khartoum state, due to the Khartoum refinery emissions. The coarse particle`s mean 24-hr mass concentrations for Khartoum and El Obeid exceeded the 24-hr U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) (150µg/m3), The fine particles 24-hr mass concentrations for Khartoum and Gedaref were above the U. S Standard value (35µg/m3). The trace elements that were detected in PM samples in CBS by using XRF technique were K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and BC. Soil is the major source of PM pollution in the CBS; other important pollution sources are traffic, industrial activities, biomass burning and petroleum electrical power plants. With a comparison study of the Khartoum elemental concentration levels in this work with those done in 2001[El-Hadi M. E., 2003], increases were observed for several elements with reduction in BC in the two particle fractions and Ca in coarse particle fractions.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/12447
Date: 2015-06-15


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