University of Khartoum

Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Extracted from Two Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) hybrid seeds

Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Extracted from Two Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) hybrid seeds

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Title: Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Extracted from Two Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) hybrid seeds
Author: Elsadig Abdallah Osman, Hamid
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of the oil extracted from two sunflower hybrids seeds (O7-5 and O7-6). A commercial cultivar (Hi sun 33) was used as a control. Proximate composition, thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight were carried out for the seeds. Refractive index, viscosity, color, specific gravity and chemical characteristics (iodine number, saponification number, acid value, peroxide value) and fatty acids composition of the oil were determined. The results showed significant differences (p≤ 0.05) in 1000-kernel and hectoliter weights among the studied cultivars.O7-6 hybrid gave the highest value of 1000-kernel weight, while the commercial cultivar gave the lowest value, whereas the highest hectoliter weight was obtained for the commercial cultivar. Proximate composition showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among the studied cultivars except in the case of ash content. The commercial cultivar contained (42.29% oil), while hybrids contained 39.29 and 40.61% for O7-6 and for O7-5 cultivars, respectively. Both hybrids gave higher values of protein than the commercial cultivar. With the exception of color, the oil physical characteristics showed significant differences (p≤ 0.05). Hybrid O7-5 contained highest values of viscosity and specific gravity (37.24 cps) and (0.91455) respectively, XI while the commercial cultivar gave the lowest values. The highest value of refractive index was obtained from commercial, while O7-5 gave the lowest value. Chemical characteristics of the oil with the exception of saponification number showed significant differences (p≤ 0.05) between hybrids and the commercial cultivar. The hybrid O7-5 gave the highest iodine number and acid value, while O7-6 gave the lowest iodine number and peroxide value. The lowest acid value and the highest peroxide value (4.6) were showed by the commercial cultivar. The oil extracted from hybrids contained high values of palmitic acid, and 60% oleic acid in O7-6 and 28.66 in O7-5. While the commercial cultivar contained46.6%. linoleic acid was 64.02% and 32.88% in O7-5 and O7-6 respectively, while the commercial cultivar contained 49.83%. The ratio of oleic to linoleic acid for O7-6 and O7-5 was 1.825 and 0.448 respectively, while it was 0.935 for commercial cultivar. It is concluded that the commercial cultivar seeds have the highe oil content but hybrid O7-5 has the best fatty acid composition.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/12759
Date: 2015-06-15


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