University of Khartoum

Variability of Yield and its Components and Some Quality Components in Twenty-five Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes

Variability of Yield and its Components and Some Quality Components in Twenty-five Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes

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Title: Variability of Yield and its Components and Some Quality Components in Twenty-five Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes
Author: Ali, Elshiekh Awadelkarim Ibrahim
Abstract: Twenty-five sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes were evaluated for yield and its components at Shambat, for the three consecutive seasons, 2006/07, 2007/08 and 2008/09. A 5x5 partially balanced lattice design with three replications was used for laying out the field experiment. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance and covariance. Genetic coefficient of variation (GCV%), heritability (h2), expected genetic advance (GA) under selection, correlation coefficient and path analysis coefficient were estimated. In addition, variability of protein and oil contents as well as their association with yield and some yield related characters were studied, in the 3rd season only. Moreover, cluster analysis, based on sixteen agro-morphological characters and four RAPD markers, was done to shed more light on the genetic relationships among the twenty-five genotypes. Furthermore, mid and better parent heterosis were estimated for yield, yield related attributes and some quality characters using six parents and their nine hybrids at Shambat in 2008/09 season, using augmented design. Significant differences were detected among the 25 sesame genotypes in the three seasons for all characters. The combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences (PX04; 0.01) among the 25 sesame genotypes and highly significant (PX04; 0.01) genotype x season interaction. Moreover, the differences among seasons were highly significant for the studied characters, except number of branches per plant. The genotypic variance was larger than the relative environmental one at least in two seasons for most of the studied characters. On the other hand, high environmental variance was depicted for stem diameter, number of seeds/capsule and yield t/ha in two seasons. Close similarity was detected between GCV% values and GA% patterns regardless of heritability value over the three seasons. The high estimates of GCV% recorded for number of branches/plant in the three seasons; number of capsules/main stem in two seasons, were accompanied by high heritability and high genetic advance (GA%). High broad sense heritability estimates were observed for days to 50% flowering and 1000 seed weight in the three seasons; plant height, height to first capsule and number of capsules/plant in two seasons. However, moderate heritability estimates observed for number of capsules/branch, seed yield/plant and yield/unit area in the three seasons. Significant positive phenotypic and genotypic correlations were obtained between seed yield per plant and each of number of capsules/branch and number of capsules/plant in two seasons. Also it had significant positive genotypic correlation with 1000 seed weight in the three seasons and number of seeds/capsules in two seasons. Significant negative correlations were obtained between days to 50% flowering and each of seed yield/plant and seed yield ton/hectare in two seasons. Highly significant positive correlations were detected between days to 50% flowering and days to maturity in the three seasons. At the genotypic level, number of branches/plant correlated negatively and significantly with each of number of seeds/capsules and 1000 seed weight in two seasons. For yield attributes, highly significant positive correlations were recorded between number of capsules/plant and number of capsules/branch in the three seasons. Furthermore, 1000 seed weight had significant negative genotypic correlation of with number of capsules/branch and number of seeds/capsule in two seasons. Path analysis revealed that height to first capsule, number of capsules per plant and 1000 seed weight were the most important yield components in the three seasons. On the other hand, number of branches/plant and number of capsules/main stem exerted high negative direct effect on seed yield/plant in the three seasons. Concerning variability in quality characters, highly significant differences were obtained in protein and oil contents. Besides, the environmental variances were larger than the corresponding genotypic ones for the two traits. Both traits had low GCV%, h2 and GA estimates. The correlation, at the phenotypic and genotypic levels, between oil content and single plant yield was significant and positive, whereas the correlation between protein content and yield/plant was significant and negative. Number of seeds/capsule had significant negative genotypic correlation with protein content and significant positive one with oil content. Also, 1000 seed weight correlated significantly and negatively with protein content and had negligible association with oil content. Cluster analysis, based on Euclidean distance, of the agro-morphological characters grouped the 25 sesame accessions into seven clusters. Application of RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) molecular markers generated 48 bands with a 97.9% polymorphism. A dendrogram constructed from the RAPD data classified the 25 sesame accessions into eight major clusters. Heterosis among the nine hybrids varied both in the direction and magnitude for the studied characters. A greater magnitude of mid parent and better parent heterosis (>30%) was obtained in nine characters. Heterosis obtained in seed yield/plant could be ascribed to concomitant heterosis in some yield elements
Description: 190 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/12822
Date: 2015-06-16


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