University of Khartoum

Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality from Surface and Ground Resorses in Gezira State

Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality from Surface and Ground Resorses in Gezira State

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Title: Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality from Surface and Ground Resorses in Gezira State
Author: Hagar Khidir, Elbakri
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of six water samples collected from two resources: ground water and surface water, both being used for human consumption. The ground water samples were collected from the center of Gezira State (Elamara and Tabat water station) and from northern Gezira State (Elhasahisa water station), while the surface water samples were collected from Raselphil water station, 24 Elgorshi and 21 Elmancy water station in western Gezira State. The samples were subjected to physical, chemical and microbial examination. The main investigated parameters were, total dissolved solid and heavy metals, PH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total hardness, alkalinity, and total viable count of microbial load. The results were compared with international drinking water specification guidelines to evaluate the quality of drinking water in the Gezira State. The turbidity level in ground water ranged from 0.3 to 0.95 NTU, while that in surface water ranged from 5.5to 197 NTU, thus being higher than the maximum acceptable level stated by WHO standard as 5NTU.The levels of alkalinity, and total dissolved solids and hardness in samples from ground water were lower than the maximum levels accepted for drinking water as recommended by WHO and SSMO (Sudanese Standard Metrology Organization) specifications. However, sodium in Elamara water station and water hardness in Tabat water station as magnesium carbonates levels were higher than the values accepted by WHO .On the other hand , alkalinity levels of surface water, total hardness and total dissolved solids were lower than the values accepted by WHO. Ammonia content in all samples from the two sources of water ranged from 2.1to3.3mg/L which were higher than the maximum values (1.5mg/L) of WHO .For micro – elements, manganese was lower than the maximum levels accepted by SSMO standards 0.5mg/L. Zinc ranged from 0.0014 to 0.02mg/L in ground water, while surface water was free of zinc. Copper was higher in surface water than in ground water .The levels of cadmium and Lead were found in ground water , while surface water was free of lead . The study revealed that the drinking water samples were polluted by coliform bacteria "Escherichia coli" except ground water from Elhasahisa which was free of coliform bacteria. The Physical examination of drinking water gave low values of pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity in both ground and surface water compared with SSMO standards. But surface water were higher in turbidity. The chemical parameters were lower in surface water than ground water. Generally the water collected from the different sources at the Gezira state need more treatment to improve the drinking water quality especially for their microbial load
Description: 70 page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/12934
Date: 2015-06-16


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