University of Khartoum

The Social Cost of Resettlement: The Case of Halfawiyyin at Suburban Khartoum

The Social Cost of Resettlement: The Case of Halfawiyyin at Suburban Khartoum

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Title: The Social Cost of Resettlement: The Case of Halfawiyyin at Suburban Khartoum
Author: Haydar Mohamed Ali, Hassan
Abstract: In most developing countries, agricultural development is conceived of in terms of dambased gravity irrigation, and mainly based on foreign inputs. The assumption is that such development projects will bring some desired changes to the lives of the target population. However, much of the available literature tackling the question of agricultural development suggest that such schemes often lead to more impoverishment and other negative impacts. The main question of this thesis is: what are the causes of the negative impacts and retreat in development despite all the good intentions? This study dealt with the case of resettled Halfawiyyin in the new Halfa scheme. Beside Halfawiyyin, the scheme comprises other groups from the indigenous tribes, and others who came into the area to work and to make use of the new available opportunities. It is observed that an increasing number of Halfawiyyin preferred to leave cultivation and migrated outside the scheme, claiming, in addition to awful economic and health circumstances, lack of security and fear from the “strangers” whose number is ever increasing inside the scheme. Therefore, a considerable number of resettled Halfawiyyin migrate towards Khartoum, especially to its southern suburbs, and concentrated at el- Kalakla, um-usher, and el-Shigailab areas; where they constituted new settlements in these areas. Many other individuals and families from the relocated Halfawiyyin preferred to migrate to their old home, where they began to utilize the new lands emerged there as a result of silt accumulation at the southern rocky edges of Lake Nasir. Another different, but generally positive response towards irrigated agriculture is shown by a voluntarily settled group in the scheme. That is, the group of “agricultural labourers”, who are mostly from different Darfur tribes. They effectively make use of the opportunities available in the scheme; and were successfully able to combine cultivation with animal rearing. Their number in the scheme is increasing; but their relationship with Halfawiyyin is generally characterized by uneasiness, doubt and avoidance. ix The study depends on the anthropological approach, beside the comparative method. Different methods of data collection were used such as interviews at the individual and group level, participant observation and secondary sources. In analyzing data, the study depends on a number of theoretical approaches of resettlement. The study revealed that “the inherent complexities approach” is the most suitable to interpret and analyze the research problem. The study concluded that the weak economic performance of the new Halfa scheme, and the failure of the scheme to attain its prescribed goals, hence the migration of resettled Halfawiyyin was mainly caused by the inherent weakness of the package of "resettlement" as a development strategy, especially in the long-run. Uprooting population from their original environments to compel them to live in strange natural and socio-cultural settings often leads to undesirable ends; hence the social cost of such enforcement is certainly, too high, and can never be compensated. Ethical issues add to the complexity of resettlement, because of the human rights involved in resettlement and particularly in light of the fact that it is often of a forced nature and often gives rise to unexpected outcomes. Therefore, development schemes which necessitate construction of dams and relocation should be revised; and as local experiences proved failure of sedentarization of nomads long time ago, resettlement experiments also seems to face the same fate, not only because of the infeasibility of dams as a long-sustaining development solutions, but also due to the fact that the issue contains some aspects of rejecting the others' right to choose what is good for them, and to avoid misuse of valuable resources.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/12953
Date: 2015-06-16


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