University of Khartoum

The Importance of Shade Trees in Improving the Environment and Increase of Productivity of Coffea Arabica in Sanaa, Dhamar and Taiz Governorates in the Republic of Yemen

The Importance of Shade Trees in Improving the Environment and Increase of Productivity of Coffea Arabica in Sanaa, Dhamar and Taiz Governorates in the Republic of Yemen

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dc.contributor.advisor Supervisor: Abd El Aziz Mohamed Saeed Bayomi Co- Supervisor: Issam El Din Ibrahim Warrag en_US
dc.contributor.author Fouad Ali Abd El Gani, Mohamed
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-22T09:18:24Z
dc.date.available 2015-06-22T09:18:24Z
dc.date.issued 2015-06-22
dc.date.submitted 1999
dc.identifier.uri http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/13811
dc.description.abstract This study was conducted in three research sites in three coffee-producing governorates in the Republic of Yemen as follows: l.Beni Mansour site in San'a governorate. 2.Medinat El Sharg site in Dhamar governorate. 3.Beni Hamad site in Taiz governorate. It was done during the period June 1997 to October 1997. The field experiment was designed to achieve the following five objectives: l. To know kind, density and uses of shade trees in coffee plantations. For this objective ten coffee plantations were selected randomly in each of the three research sites. In each plantation a number of circular measurement units were demarcated, each circle had a half-diameter of five meters and an area of 78.58 m2. Measurements were taken in circular units whose total area came to five percent of area of the Coffee plantations and whose numbers were 1-3 units in each farm and a total of 39 for all farms. - In each unit the following parameters were measured: - Count of all shade and coffee trees was taken. - Diameters of crowns of the nearest four coffee trees and crowns of the nearest shade tree to the center of the circle were measured. 2. To make certain the importance of shade trees in improving the environment for increasing coffee production and improving its quality. For this objective three coffee plantations from the ten in each site were selected randomly. Measurements of temperature, wind speed and sun radiation were done first: at one outside point five meters away from the boundary of the plantation and on its median line. Second: it one point on the boundary and third: inside the plantation on its median line, at points 10,20 and 30 m. from its boundary. 3. To make certain the importance of the regular pruning of shade and coffee trees and the importance of replacement of very old coffee trees to prevent decrease of coffee production. 4. To know the positive effects of shade trees represented in increase of coffee production and improving its quality. Also to know of any negative effects of shade trees. 5. To know the extent of fanner's awareness as to the importance of shade trees and their knowledge of the uses of these trees in general and improving the environment for coffee trees in particular. From the field survey it appeared that half the farmers in Beni Mansour and in Medinat El Sharg had plantations shaded and half had unshaded ones, where as in Bani Hamad all farmers had thickly shade plantations. In addition to the field experiment information was obtained from a questionnaire designed to compliment the results of the experiment. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to sixty farmers 20 in each research site. Results from the field experiment showed the following points concerning the five objectives mentioned before. I. For objective one the results showed that in all sites the most important shade tree was Cordia africana (Tanab). In Bani Mansour and Medinat El Sharg Various types to tree came second and third place. As to Bani Hamad Ficus vasta (Talug) tree came second place. It is worthy to note that the Mango tree was a very important shade tree in this site. 2. For the second and fourth objectives results confirmed the importance of shade trees for coffee trees growth and for increasing their production and improving the coffee quality. This was done through the action of shade trees in preventing or reducing the effects of the damaging climatic factor. Results showed significant reductions in temperature, in wind speed and on reducing high sun radiation in shaded coffee plantations compared to those without shade trees. 3. For objective three results confirmed the importance of regular pruning for both shade and coffee trees since too much shade on coffee trees reduced its production as is present in Beni Hamad since shade effect may be negative if it exceeds the appropriate limit. Field observations spotted some pruning on coffee trees but it was clear that this pruning was done to obtain dry firewood rather than to increase coffee production. 4. The fifth and last objective concerning the extent of farmers awareness to the importance of shade trees will be discussed in the following account of the questionnaire results. Many of the questionnaire results came in line with field experiment results discussed above. Results confirmed the following facts: I. Most preferred shade tree by farmers in Beni Mansour and Medinat El Sharg was Cordia africana (Tanab ) followed by sidr (Zizyphus spina-christi). In Beni Hamad Ficus vasta (Talug) came first, followed by the mango tree, tanab and sidr. As uses other than shade farmers mentioned timber, fire wood, fodder, ornamental and soil protection against erosion. 2. Shade trees were planted mainly to protect coffee trees from hale in .addition to its role in protecting coffee trees from excessive heat, very cold temperatures, dry winds and high sun radiation. 3. Pruning was done by 50% of the farmers but not for obtaining new young branches bearing flowers and fruits but for obtaining firewood. 4. Knowledge of positive effects of shade trees by farmers is the fourth objective. This was referred to when we discussed reasons for planting shade trees. Farmers appeared to be aware of these positive effects of coffee trees. However a very small percentage mentioned only one negative effect concerning the attraction of insects and birds. 5. As to the fifth and last objective concerning the extent of farmers awareness of the importance of shade trees in coffee plantations, their answers confirmed this but they mentioned several difficulties against expansion of planting shade trees such as: non- availability of the trees, shortage of irrigation water, state assistance limited to technical matters and the absence of the extension service in solving their difficulties. The study presented a number of recommendations as follows: I. Planting of more shade trees in coffee plantations to provide appropriate shade. 2. Regular pruning of shade and coffee trees. 3. More research is needed to compliment the present study particularly: I.. Continuation of the present experiment to cover flowering season and winter season. 2. Knowledge of-the best indigenous shade trees and the suitable planting distance. 3. Knowledge of the best introduced shade trees especially legume trees such as Erythrina poeppigiana and Diphysa robinioides which increased coffee production in other countries. 4. To make certain among farmers the importance of pruning and avoidance of heavy shade. 5. To encourage farmers to replace old coffee trees in Bani Hamad and in other similar sites in the Republic of Yemen. 6. Extending forestry extension services among coffee producing farmers so that coffee production regains its status in the Republic of Yemen. The fanners are willing to contribute in tree planting, in protecting trees against people and animal damage but they cannot offer monetary contributions. en_US
dc.publisher UOFK en_US
dc.subject The Importance of Shade Trees in Improving the Environment and Increase of Productivity of Coffea Arabica in Sanaa, Dhamar and Taiz Governorates in the Republic of Yemen en_US
dc.title The Importance of Shade Trees in Improving the Environment and Increase of Productivity of Coffea Arabica in Sanaa, Dhamar and Taiz Governorates in the Republic of Yemen en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.Degree M.Sc en_US
dc.Faculty Faculty of Forestry en_US
dc.contributor.faculty Forest Conservation en_US

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