University of Khartoum

Studies on Equine Onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State

Studies on Equine Onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State

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Title: Studies on Equine Onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State
Author: Fadia Yagoub Ali Hamid, Hamid
Abstract: A total of 1111 horses and donkeys were examined for presence of onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State. The study also emphasized on the clinical, haemtological, blood chemical and treatment aspects. The survey was carried out from September 1998 to August 1999 on horses and donkeys presented to Nyala Veterinary Teaching Hospital and selected villages in the state. Out of 546 horses and 565 donkeys, 53 (9.7%) and 63 (11.15%), respectively were found positive for microfilaria in the blood samples. The age of infected animals ranged between 5.3 and 7.4 years old. The infection was high in rainy seasons 12.6% and less in the dry seasons, because of activity of the vector in rainy seasons. The microfilariae were identified as Onchocerca cervicalis (9.7%) and O. reticulata (0.7%). The main symptoms observed among infected horses were anaemia (28.3%), lacrimation (52.8%), weakness (39.6%) and various forms of skin lesions ranging from dermatitis (5.6%) to subcutaneous nodules (18.8%). Body temperature of the infected horses gave mean values of (38.2±8) and showed no significant variation from those of control healthy horses (P > 0.05). Similarly, body temperature of the infected donkeys gave mean values of (37.9±0.0) (P < 0.001). Various levels of anaemia as measured by drop in haemoglobin and packed cell volume among horses (34.2%) and donkeys (25.8%) infected with Onchocerca spp. but less so among those infected with both onchocerciasis and nematodes. The biochemical proteins constituent and glucose levels were similarly affected with a significant drop (P < 0.001). Marked eosinophilia was encountered among horses (21.3±4.5) and among donkeys (21.5±3.1) infected with both onchocercaiasis and nematodes. Among horses (20.8±5) and among donkeys (19.8±3.5) infected with onchocerciasis, but less among those with infected with nematodes. Eosinophilia was 15.7±4.1 among horses and 18.2±2.6 among donkeys. The increase in eosinophils was mainly substituted with a decrease in the percentage of neutrophils. The marked obvious drop in the above measured parameters can explain the noticeable health deterioration among infected cases induced by these parasites. Twenty two of onchocerciasis infected horses and donkeys received treatment subcutaneously with ivermectin at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The result of treatment in terms of clinical, haematological and biochemical aspects showed a significant increase compared with infected animals before treatment. Ivermectin had broad spectrum anthelminitic activity in horses and donkeys and their efficacy was 97.5%.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/14230
Date: 2015-06-23


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