University of Khartoum

Management of Water Supply in Arid Regions of Developing Countries (Reference): Khartoum –Sudan).

Management of Water Supply in Arid Regions of Developing Countries (Reference): Khartoum –Sudan).

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Title: Management of Water Supply in Arid Regions of Developing Countries (Reference): Khartoum –Sudan).
Author: Mohamed Ahmed Adam, Khadam
Abstract: The conventional methods for planning and designing water supply schemes in developing countries should give way to approaches and strategies depending on local comprehensive analysis. Khartoum City as an arid region of a developing country was used as a case study to illustrate the proposed framework of such analysis. World wide investigations pertaining to water demand management were reviewed. Though the majority of these investigations were conducted in the U.S., yet a few researchers in developing countries attempted similar analysis of water demand. Integrated approach was adopted in this study. Three hundred and ten individual households representing random samples in three different strata of the community. were used in the analysis. Stepwise regression procedure was used for generating mathematical models for households with piped water connections and for dwellers on the fringes of the town (squatter settlements). Linear and multiplicative models were simultaneously produced for each category of consumers The community was stratified according to housing classes. Variables influencing domestic demand in each class were integrated into fitted equations according to seasonal variations of water uses. Separate models were constructed for sprinkling (irrigation) water demand. For all consumers' categories, in general, number of occupants in households, price of water and other environmental variables appeared to be the most significant factors. Number of occupants in households influences the per capita consumption, but in a decreasing rate indicating economy of scale in water use Demand responsiveness to price was given by elasticities coefficients. For all consumers with piped-water connections elasticity coefficient of (-0.58) was obtained. For squatter settlements and summer sprinkling (irrigation) demands values of (-0.74) and (-1.08) were obtained respectively. Impact of price on domestic demand could be inferred from the results. Linear and exponential demand curves were plotted which conformed to hypothetical demand curves. Demand curves could be very useful in designing equitable tariff and thereby eliminating the conventional estimate of tariff by thumb-rule The study recognized the significance of other inputs in promoting managing practices of water demand. Educational programmers, health considerations, adequate ways of liquid waste disposal, setting of appropriate by-laws etc have remarkable influence on water demand analysis. The methodology adopted in this investigation could generally be valid for demand analysis in developing countries. However, due to varying environmental conditions at different localities, procedure could be adapted to suit the prevailing situations. Hence future researches at the national or regional level are recommended for attaining comprehensive and applicable managing practices that would efficiently develop water supply systems.
Description: 287page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/14278
Date: 2015-06-23


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