University of Khartoum

Utilization of Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus ) Seed Cake for Lambs Fattening

Utilization of Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus ) Seed Cake for Lambs Fattening

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dc.contributor.advisor Salih Ahmed Babiker en_US
dc.contributor.author Osman,Amani Abd Marouf Beshir
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-23T08:20:10Z
dc.date.available 2015-06-23T08:20:10Z
dc.date.issued 2015-06-23
dc.date.submitted 2002
dc.identifier.uri http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/14384
dc.description.abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate water melon (Citrullus lanatus) seed cake as a possible protein supplement for growing lambs in comparison to groundnut cake. Graded proportions of water melon seed cake (WMSC) protein replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of groundnut cake (GNC) protein in five iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous diets for lamb fattening. Diet A contained 0% of WMSC, diets B, C, D and E contained 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of WMSC protein, respectively. Fourty five yearling male lambs of Sudan desert sheep ecotype Kabashi with average body weight of 31.5 kg were used for the feeding trial. The lambs were randomly divided into five experimental groups having equal number and live weight. Each group was offered one of the experimental diets for a feeding period of 45 days. A digestibility trial was then conducted for the experimental diets using 15 lambs of the same desert sheep ecotype. There was a significant (P<0.01) linear decrease in feed intake and average daily live weight gain with increasing WMSC protein level in the diet, but dietary treatments had no significant effect on feed conversion efficiency and final body weight. However, lambs fed diet A (0% WMSC) were found to be superior over the other treatment groups in previous parameters. Dietary treatments did not affect any carcass parameter. The proportions of whole-sale cuts were also not influenced. Carcass composition parameters did not differ significantly among the treatment groups. Muscle and fat percentages were slightly higher in the control group, but bone percentage was higher in group E which was fed the highest percentage of WMSC protein. The slaughter by-products showed no significant differences among dietary treatments. Chemical composition of meat revealed that the protein content in the muscles of all treatment groups except group E had similar values. Group A had the highest (P<0.01) fat and lowest moisture content, while group E had the lowest fat content and highest moisture content. Fat content decreased with increasing levels of WMSC inclusion in the diet, while moisture content increased with increasing levels. There was a significant effect (P<0.01 and P<0.05) among treatment groups in sacroplasmic proteins and non-protein nitrogen, respectively, but no significant effect was observed for myofibrillar proteins. The values of these proteins were decreased with increasing dietary level of WMSC. Meat quality attributes showed significant effect in water holding capacity (P<0.001), cooking loss (P<0.01) and shear force (P<0.001) which indicated that meat of group A was of superior water holding capacity and lower cooking losses, and was more tender than that of the other groups. The meat colour revealed significant effect among dietary treatments for lightness (P<0.05), redness (P<0.01) and yellowness (P<0.01), respectively, indicating that meat from groups C, D and E was darker in colour than from groups A and B. This could possibly be due to a proportional decrease in the concentration of myogloblin as intra-muscular fat increased and to the lighter colour of fats. Dietary treatments showed no significant effect among the tested groups in taste panel scores of tenderness, juiciness, flavour, colour and overall acceptability. However, meat from animals in group A was more desired than the meat from other groups. Digestibility coefficient of dry matter, protein and crude fibre differed significantly among the treatment groups. No significant differences were observed for digestibility coefficients of organic matter and ether extract. Dietary treatments affected significantly digestible crude protein, digestible crude fibre and digestible ether extract. However, dietary treatments did not affect total digestible nutrients. Generally there was an inverse relationship between these parameters and WMSC protein level in the diets. It was concluded that WMSC protein when incorporated in lamb diets to replace up to 50% of groundnut protein supported a satisfactory live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. It produced carcasses which were not significantly different in characteristics from that produced when GNC protein was the sole source of dietary protein. Meat muscle composition and quality were almost similar to those produced by feeding GNC diet. Digestibility coefficients of nutrients, digestible nutrients and total digestible nutrients were also not significantly different among the dietary treatments. en_US
dc.publisher University of Khartoum en_US
dc.subject Water Melon;Seed Cake;Lambs; Fattening en_US
dc.title Utilization of Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus ) Seed Cake for Lambs Fattening en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.Degree M.Sc en_US
dc.Faculty faculty of Animal Production en_US
dc.contributor.faculty Department of Meat Production en_US

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