University of Khartoum

Food Value of Sudanese Indigenous Cereal Grains

Food Value of Sudanese Indigenous Cereal Grains

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dc.contributor.advisor Aamir Mohammed Salih en_US
dc.contributor.author Laila Yahia Monawar., Monawar.
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-23T09:26:12Z
dc.date.available 2015-06-23T09:26:12Z
dc.date.issued 2015-06-23
dc.date.submitted 1983
dc.identifier.uri http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/14511
dc.description.abstract Traditional nasha is a thin porridge made from sorghum and millet and is consumed in the Sudan by all age groups. It is given to babies during weaning. The nasha contains 5% dry matter which is well below the internationally recommended level (15 – 18%). In this study, the newly produced nasha has 17% dry matter. The addition of barley malt (30% to Dabar and 15% to Pearl millet) reduced the viscosity to that of the traditional nasha. Adding 0.1% kinase enzyme to sorghum lowered the viscosity to the acceptable range, while up to 17% kinase enzyme did not significantly affect the viscosity of the Pearl millet. Decorticating (80% extraction rate) improved the colour, increased the protein content by 2% for Dabar but in Pearl millet the protein content was reduced by 9%. It also decreased the fibre, fat and the micronutrients. Decortications reduced polyphenols by 50% in sorghum and removed all of them in the Pearl millet. Also, phytic acid was reduced by 20% and 19% for Dabar and Pearl millet, respectively. The follow-up of fermentation patterns of nasha showed that it is lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. The fermentation reached its peak at 30oC within 6 hours and 12 hours for sorghum and Pearl millet, respectively. Organoleptically, 12 hours was preferred for both sorghum and Pearl millet samples. Four different methods were used for drying the fermented products: oven-drying; freeze-drying; drum-drying; and spray-drying. The drum drying proved to be the most practical one. Because sorghum and millet are known to be deficient in lysine, the samples were supplemented by 20% full cream milk or skimmed milk, or by 0.4% L-lysine. The milk supplementation increased the protein by 35% and the lysine by 85%. The addition of 0.4% L-lysine before and after processing raised its level to an average of 5.0 and 6.5 g/16 bN, respectively which are comparable to those recommended by FAO (1976- 4.20) and the egg lysine (6.4g/16 gN.). Cooking sorghum without fermentation gave a very low in vitro protein digestibility (43% for whole Dabar and 57% for whole Pearl millet). The fermented drum-dried samples had higher in vitro protein digestibility of approximately 71% and 74% for whole Dabar and whole Pearl millet, respectively. The butylated hydroxyanisole, added at 150 ppm to Dabar and 200 ppm to Pearl millet, minimized the rate of fat oxidation during the actual processing and the subsequent storage for 6 months at 4, 12 and 34°C. It was observed that the untreated Pearl millet samples rapidly deteriorated. The drum-dried samples supplemented with 20% full cream milk were preferred by the panelists without any of them detecting the changes in flavours introduced by the supplementing ingredients. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher UOFK en_US
dc.subject Value of Sudanese Indigenous Cereal Grains en_US
dc.title Food Value of Sudanese Indigenous Cereal Grains en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.Degree Ph.D en_US
dc.Faculty Veterinary Science en_US

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