University of Khartoum

Studies on Harvesting Methods, Post-Harvest Handling and Storage of Two Dry Date Cultivars

Studies on Harvesting Methods, Post-Harvest Handling and Storage of Two Dry Date Cultivars

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Title: Studies on Harvesting Methods, Post-Harvest Handling and Storage of Two Dry Date Cultivars
Author: Shattir, Adil El Tayeb
Abstract: This study consisted of six different experiments. In the first experiment, physical and chemical characteristics, yield and yield components of Barakawi and Gondeila date cultivars at "Tamar" stage were studied. In the second experiment, the effect of different harvesting methods (traditional vs improved method) on quality and storability of Barakawi and Gondeila date cultivars were studied. In the third experiment, the effect of post-harvest application of photoxin and /or methyl bromide fumigants on quality and storability of Barakawi and Gondeila dates cultivars were studied. In the fourth experiment, the effect of using water extract of "neem" seeds and leaves as insect repellent, were studied for the two cultivars. In the fifth experiment, the effect of different packaging materials on quality and storability of Barakawi and Gondeila date cultivarsa were studied. Experiment six, dealt with the effect of the presence or absence of fruits perianths on quality and storability of Barakawi and Gondeila dates. In the first experiment, the results showed that Gondeila date cultivar had shown significantly higher values of physical characteristics in terms of fruit weight, pulp weight and fruit width compared to Barakawi date cultivars. Gondeila date cultivar had significant higher values of total sugars, sucrose, total protein and sodium content compared to Barakawi dates.Barakawi date cultivar had shown significantly higher values of moisture content, reducing sugars content, potassium content and total phenolic compounds compared to Gondeila date cultivar. Significantly greater numbers of bunches per tree, strands per bunch, fruits per bunch and higher yield were associated with Barakawi dates compared to Gondeila date cultivar. In the second experiment, the results showed that greater percentages of shattered fruits and perianths loss of both Barakawi and Gondeila fruits were associated with the traditional method of harvesting compared to improved method of harvesting. Traditionally harvested Barakawi and Gondeila dates had shown greater insect infestation during storage compared to improved harvested dates of both cultivars. Significant reduction in the contents of total and reducing sugars was detected in both Barakawi and Gondeila dates harvested by the traditional method of harvesting compared to improved harvested dates of both cultivars. No significant reduction was observed in total protein content in both cultivars harvested by both methods regardless of the treatment. Total phenolic compounds of both cultivars harvested by both methods showed slight but not significant reduction as the storage period progressed, regardless of the treatment. In the third experiment, the results reveled that application of phostoxin and methyl bromide fumigants to both cultivars resulted in greater reduction in the insect infestation compared to the control treatment. However, methyl bromide was found to be more effective in reducing insect infestation in both cultivars compared to photoxin. A significant reduction in total and reducing sugars contents of untreated and photoxins treated dates of both cultivars were found during the last months of storage compared to methyl bromide fumigated dates of both cultivars .Total protein of both cultivars was found to decrease towards the end of storage period , regardless to the treatment . Total phenolic compounds of both cultivars were found to decrease as storage period progressed, Regardless of the treatment. In the fourth experiment the result indicated that "neem" seeds and "neem" leaves water extracts resulted ingreater reduction in insect infestation of both cultivars compared to the control. However, "neem" seeds water extract was found to be more effective in reduction insect infestation in both cultivars compared to "neem" leaves water extracts. A significant reduction in total and reducing sugars of untreated and "neem" leaves water extract treated Barakawi and Gondeila dates were observed during the last months of storage compared to dates of both cultivars treated with "neem" seeds water extract. Total protein content of both cultivars were found to decrease towards the end of storage period regardless of the treatment. In the fifth experiment, the results showed that Barakawi dates packed in jute bags had shown the highest significant reduction in fruit weight during the first 8 months compared to Gondeilla dates packed in polyethylene and propylene bags. However, Gondeila dates packed in polyethylene had shown significant reduction in fruit weight after 10 and 12 months of storage compared to Gondeila dates packed in propylene bags or jute bags. Fruit moisture content of Barakawi and Gondeila dates packed in jute bags had shown the highest reduction through most of storage period. A sharp drop in fruit moisture content of both cultivars packed in polyethylene bags and propylene bags were observed during the last months of storage compared to dates of both cultivars packed in jute bags. Insect infestation was highest in Barakawi dates packed in jute bags followed by propylene bags and polyethylene bags. In Gondeila dates insect infestation was heighest in jute bags for the first 8 months followed by propylene bags and polyethylene bags. While ' Gondeila' dates packed in polyethylene bags had shown the highest insect infestation during the last four months of storage compared to dates packed in the other packaging materials. No fungal infection was found in Barakawi dates and Gondeila dates packed in jute bags throughout the storage periods. However, fungal infection was highest in polyethylene bags followed by propylene bags. Barakawi dates packed in jute bags had shown the highest reduction in the content of total and reducing sugars during the last months of storage compared to other packaging materials. Gondeila dates packed in polyethylene bags had shown the highest reduction in the contents of total and reducing sugars during the last 4 months of storage. Total protein of both cultivars were found to decrease towards the end of the storage period, regardless of the treatment In the sixth experiment, the results showed that stored dates of both cultivars without perianths had shown the highest significant increase in insect infestation compared of the other treatments. No significant differences in the contents of total and reducing sugars and total proteins of both cultivars were found among the different treatments during storages periods. Total phenolic compounds exhibited slight decrease in both cultivars regardless of the treatment.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/14549
Date: 2015-06-23


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