University of Khartoum

Proximate Composition and Flour Quality of Wheat Cultivars Grown in Sudan.

Proximate Composition and Flour Quality of Wheat Cultivars Grown in Sudan.

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Title: Proximate Composition and Flour Quality of Wheat Cultivars Grown in Sudan.
Author: Ahmed,Samia Eltayeb
Abstract: A comparative study for the chemical components and flour quality eighteen wheat cultivars, obtained from Wadmedni Research Station, was carried out. The effect of growing seasons (1991/92 compared to 1992/93) and rate of extraction (100%and 72% season 92/93) on chemical components and quality was also studied using four of the commercial wheat cultivars namely Nasser, Elneilain, Condor and Debeira. A significant variation in composition was found among wheat flour of the different cultivars investigated. Most of the chemical components (moisture, protein, Fiber) and quality aspects (gluten, hardness, kernel weight, sedim6tation value) were shown to be significantly affected by both growing seasons and extraction rate. Most cultivars were found to contain lower amount of moisture and relatively high protein percentage. The alpha amylase activity was observed to be generally low. The kemel weight of wheat is an indication of the flour yield. The results confirm that as the cultivars of high kemel weight have less crude fiber and ash contents. From the results of this work it is observed that most hardness values range between 9 and 12 kg and it also observed that with increasing hardness values the bread volume increases. Baking tests were carried out on four commercial wheat cultivars (Nasser, Elneilain, Condor and Debeira) only because of unavailability of others. From the baking test results it was observed that baking quality was significantly affected by the protein, gluten, kemel hardness and alpha amylase activity. The results showed that cultivar Nasser gave the best quality for bread-making as compared to other commercial cultivars.Cultivars F7 89-90-2159. Debeira x 21PHS ( NH 270). 12300 Y 14PYIV (NH270) Pavan's X Condor's. WL 2265 reselection for which no baking tests were carried out, are expected to give high quality bread (as they have high percentage in all quality aspects) but further investigations are needed to confirm this expectation. From a survey on Khartoum state mills bakeries and factories a difficultly in controlling the quality of flour used and bread-made was seen, due to the variation in physical and chemical characteristics of imported and local wheat cultivars from which the flour was obtained. The low quality of wheat flour products may be attributed to the non-conformity of quality control measures. In fact it has been noticed that there is no quality control unit in anyone of the factories and bakeries visited. The finding of this work showed that cultivar Nasser gave high flour quality and this proved to be a suitable cultivar for bread-making. Other cultivars also showed the ability of producing high quality flour and are therefore considered as promising cultivars for bread-making in the Sudan.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/15205
Date: 2015-06-28


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