University of Khartoum

Effect of Conservation Tillage and Insitu Rainwater Harvesting Techniques on Yield and Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Under Dryland Farming in Gadarif State, Sudan

Effect of Conservation Tillage and Insitu Rainwater Harvesting Techniques on Yield and Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Under Dryland Farming in Gadarif State, Sudan

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Title: Effect of Conservation Tillage and Insitu Rainwater Harvesting Techniques on Yield and Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Under Dryland Farming in Gadarif State, Sudan
Author: Babiker, Ahmed Mohammed Mohammed
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of conservation tillage and insitu rainwater harvesting techniques on yield and yield components of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under dryland farming of Gadarif State during three consecutive seasons (2009,2010 and 2011). The experimental field was arranged in a split-plot design with three replications each consisted of three main plots, which were chisel ploughed at three different depth (20 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm) to represent conservation tillage. Each plot was divided into five (3m*6m) subplots, of comprising five treatments, which were randomly distributed. They were wide level discing (WLD), as conventional tillage practice, two tied- ridging spaced at 1 m and 2 m (TR1,TR2) and two furrow-ridging with ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 (RF1:1, RF2:1). The latter four treatments were considered as insitu rainwater harvesting techniques. Soil moisture contents were monitored at early and late in the season showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences between treatments. The lowest values of soil moisture contents were recorded for wide level discing, followed by furrow-ridging (RF) and the highest for tied ridging (TR). On the other hand, the early season records were higher than those of late season. Thus, records of average soil moisture contents during the three seasons indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences between treatments, in the sequence of 102.7 mm, 206.2 mm for WLD, 117.7, 218.3, mm for RF2:1; 110.3 mm, 217.9 mm for RF1:1; 122.9 mm, 220 mm for TR1m and 117.9 mm, 238.1mm for TR2m, at late and early season respectively. On the other hand, some yield and growth parameters is grain yield (gm/m2), and dry matter (gm/m2) indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences between treatments. Grain yield was 184.8, 19 3.6, 194.8, 204.5 and 211.5 gm/m2 for WLD, RF2:1, RF1:1,TR1m and TR2m respectively. The dry matter average values, they were 99.3, 104.9, 105.2, 105.9 and 114.6 gm/m2 for WLD, RF1:1, RF2:1, TR1m and TR2m, respectively. Reganding, the growth parameters, days to 50% flowering, number of weeds/m2, plant height and stem diameter showed no significant differences between treatments. Plant height was 76.4 cm for WLD, while, TR1m,TR2m, RF1:1 and RF2:1 recorded 85.8 cm, 86.1cm, 83.9 cm and 84.7 cm, respectively. Stem diameter was 1.5 cm for WLD, 1.7 cm for TR1m, RF1:1and RF2:1 and 1.8 for TR2m. The number of weeds /m2 were 20.2, 18.8, 18.7, 19.2 and 19.2/m2 for WLD, TR1m, TR2m, RF1:1 and RF2:1, respectively. Moreover, the use of chisel ploughing at the depth of 20, 25 and 30 cm resulted in soil moisture contents of 199.2, 216.1 and 244.9 mm during early season, while during late season, they resulted in soil moisture contents of 98.9,110 and 133.9 mm, respectively. It becomes apparent that the application of wide level discing under dryland farming resulted in reduced values of soil moisture content, yield and yield components of sorghum crop. The insitu water harvesting and conservation tillage techniques, on the other hand, resulted in better values for the soil moisture content and crop growth and yield attributes.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/16015
Date: 2015-09-13


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