University of Khartoum

Anti-diarrhoeal Activity and safety assessment of the Ethanolic Extract of Adansonia digitata and Haplophyllum tuberclatum in Rats

Anti-diarrhoeal Activity and safety assessment of the Ethanolic Extract of Adansonia digitata and Haplophyllum tuberclatum in Rats

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Title: Anti-diarrhoeal Activity and safety assessment of the Ethanolic Extract of Adansonia digitata and Haplophyllum tuberclatum in Rats
Author: Elsheikh, Maha Yousif Abdelrahim
Abstract: study was conducted to investigate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extracts of fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata (Gungulaiz) and ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (ELhaza), in albino rats. The safety measurement of the two plant extracts were, also, evaluated by toxicity testing. Phytochemical analysis of the two plants were done and revealed presence of high concentration of saponins and flavonoids. Three experiments were carried out for A. digitata, two experiments for testing antidiarrheal activity and the third for testing the safety measures of the plant. In the first experiment, 30 albino rats were divided into 5 groups; Groups 1 and 2 were given 1 ml of normal saline, group 3 was given250mg/kg Bwt A.digitata, group4 was given 500mg/kg Bwt A.digitata, while group 5 was given 3mg/kg Bwt loperamide (standard drug).One hour later, all the groups, except group 1(negative control), were given 1ml of castor oil/rat. Mean weight of feces, frequency of defecation and inhibition percentage of defecation were recorded after 4 and, then, after 6 hours of treatment. The results revealed that during the first four hours, inhibition of defecation in group 4 was 68% compared with castor oil (control group), while inhibition of defecation in group 5 was 78%. After 6 hrs from the last treatment of rats, the inhibition of defecation in group 4 was 78%, while it was 84% in group 5. The second, experiment was conducted to confirm the antidiarrheal activity of A. digitata by measuring intestinal fluid accumulation and electrolytes secretion. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups, groups1 and 2 were given normal saline 1ml/rat, group 3 was given 250mg/kg BwtA. digitata, group 4 was given 500mg/kg Bwt A. digigtata, group 5was given 3mg/kg Bwt loperamide. After one hour, all groups, except group1, were given 1 ml/rat of castor oil. Two hours later, all the rats were sacrified and the contents of the intestine were collected. Reduction of the volumes of the intestinal content of each group was calculated and was21%, 24% and 31% for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Electrolytes secretion was, also, recorded in this experiment.A. digitata significantly increased the concentration of Na and K compared with castor oil group. For testing the safety potential of A.digitata, a third experiment was performed using 24 rats divided into 4 groups. Group 1 acted as negative control and the ethanolic extract of A. digitatawas orally given at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg Bwt to groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, for 10 days. At the end of the experiment (10 days), there were no changes in biochemical values, AST, ALT, total protein, albumin and urea and no changes in hematological values, RBCs, WBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV and MCHC. No histopathological changes were detected in the liver, kikneys, spleen or intestine in all groups compared with the negative control. For H. tuberculatum, three experiments were conducted, two experiments to study the antidiarrheal efficacy of the plant and the third experiment to evaluate the safety measures of the plant. In the first experiment, 30 rats were divided into 5 groups: groups 1 and 2 were given 1 ml/rat of normal saline, groups 3 and 4 were given H. tuberculatum ethanolic extract at 250 and 500mg /kg Bwt, respectively, group 5 was given 3mg/kg Bwt loperamide. One hour later, the rats in groups 3, 4 and 5 were given 1 ml of castor oil/rat. The reduction on weight of feces compared with group 2 during the first 4 hours was 65%, 74%, and 75% for groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Six hours later, the inhibition percentage was 45%, 64% and 83% for groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively. In the second experiment, the effect of H. tuberculatum on the inhibition rate of the volume on the intestinal content and electrolyte secretion were done. In this experiment, 30 rats were divided into 5 groups, groups 1 and 2 were given normal saline 1ml/rat, group 3 was given 250mg/kg Bwt H. tuberculatum, group4 was given 500mg/kg Bwt H. tuberculatum, group 5was given 3mg/kg Bwt loperamide. One hour later, all groups, except group 1, were given 1 ml/rat castor oil. The rats were sacrified and the intestinal contents were collected. The inhibition of the volume of the intestinal content of each group revealed 49%, 59% and 60% for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. For testing the safety of H. tuberculatum, a third experiment was performed. Twenty four rats were orally given 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg Bwt of ethanolic extract for 10 days compared with negative control. At the end of the experiment (10 days), there were no changes in biochemical values AST, ALT, total protein, albumin and urea and no changes in hematological values RBCs, WBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV and MCHC. No histopathological changes were detected in the liver, kidneys, spleen or intestine in all groups compared with the negative control. It is concluded that A. digitata and H. tuberculatum possess antidiarrheal properties with high activity of the first one and this may be due to the phytochemical constituents mainly saponin or flavonoids. The two plants were safe at oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg Bwt.
Description: 115 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/16155
Date: 2015-09-15


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