University of Khartoum

Assessment of Ameliorative Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Acetaminophen –induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Assessment of Ameliorative Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Acetaminophen –induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Show full item record

Title: Assessment of Ameliorative Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Acetaminophen –induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats
Author: Al-Tayib, Omar Abashar
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera (Alrawaq) against acetaminophen- induced nephrotoxicity in rats, and to investigate the safety measures of the aqueous and ethanolic extract. Four experiments were conducted; the first was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract on nephrotoxicity in rats. Thirty albino rats were randomly arranged into 5 groups, each of 6 rats. Group 1 served as untreated control; group 2 acted as acetaminophen control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with single daily oral doses of the aqueous extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively. One hour later, groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, received single daily oral doses of acetaminophen at 200 mg/kg bwt; all doses were continued for14 days. Clinical signs were regularly observed and after 14 days, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and kidney sections were taken for histopathology. In acetaminophen treated rats, the levels of creatinine, urea, cholesterol and total lipids significantly increased, while protein and albumin significantly decreased. In the groups treated with the aqueous extract, the alterations of these levels were changed towards the normal values (control values). Histopathologically, the kidney sections of acetaminophen group showed severe hemorrhage, congestion, shrinking of the glomeruli with necrosis of tubules and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In groups 3, 4 and 5, there was significantly reduction in the intensity of the histopathological lesions. The second experiment was designed to determine the ameliorative effect of the ethanolic extract against acetaminophen- induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Thirty albino rats were evenly divided into 5 groups, each of 6 rats. Group 1 served as a control group, group 2 served as acetaminophen control group. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were given oral doses of ethanolic extract at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt/day, respectively, for 14 days. After one hour, all groups except group 1 received oral doses of acetaminophen at 200mg/kg bwt/day, for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed after 14 days. The serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, cholesterol and total lipids significantly increased in acetaminophen treated rats, when compared to control group. In groups 3, 4 and 5, treated with ethanolic extract, the concentrations of urea, creatinine, cholesterol and total lipids significantly decreased while the concentration of total protein and albumin significantly increased compared to acetaminophen treated group. Kidneys of acetaminophen group showed severe hemorrhage, congestion, shrinking of the glomeruli with necrosis of renal tubules, while in the groups receiving the ethanolic extract, the kidney sections showed mild congestion and lymphocytic infiltration. The third experiment was conducted to assess the safety measures of the aqueous extract. Twenty albino rats were randomly allotted to four groups: group 1 was the normal control, groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with aqueous extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, for 14 days. After 14 days, rats were sacrified and blood sample were collected for biochemical and hematological study. The results revealed that, there were no changes in serum urea and creatinine in all groups treated by aqueous extract as compared to the control group, whereas the concentration of cholesterol and total lipids slightly decreased in groups 3 and 4 and the total protein significiantly increased in groups 3 and 4. Hematological values (RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC) showed no significant changes in all groups except group 3 which manifested significant increase in the value of RBCs, Hb and PCV when compared to the control group. The histopathological sections of kidney, liver, spleen and heart of treated rats, showed no significant changes. The fourth experiment was designed to study the safety potentials of M. oleifera ethanolic extracts. Twenty albino rats were randomly arranged into 4 groups, each of 5 rats. The first group served as control group; groups 2, 3 and 4 were given the ethanolic extract orally at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, for 14 days. The rats were scarified after 14 days, and blood sample were collected for serobiochemical and hematological values. There were no changes in serum urea and creatinine in all treated groups as compared with the control group. There was significant decrease in serum cholesterol and total lipids in groups 3 and 4 and the concentrations of total protein and albumin showed significant increase in groups 3 and 4. Hematological values (RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC) showed no significant changes in all groups except for group 3 where there was significant increase in values of RBC and Hb. The histopathological sections of kidney, liver, spleen and heart for rats treated with ethanolic extract, showed no significant changes. It is concluded that, the leaves of M. oleifera aqueous and ethanolic extracts possess nephroprotective activity against acetaminophen nephrotoxicity in rats, and the ethanolic extract exhibited better effects than aqueous extract. The two Moringa extracts were safe at oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg bwt for 14 days.
Description: 122 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/17028
Date: 2015-11-12


Files in this item

Files Size Format View

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record

Share

Search DSpace


Browse

My Account