University of Khartoum

Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Paradigm of Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Non-HIV/AIDS Patients

Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Paradigm of Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Non-HIV/AIDS Patients

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Title: Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Paradigm of Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Non-HIV/AIDS Patients
Author: Musa, Ahmed M.; Musa, Brima; Khalil, Eltahir Awad G.; Khidir, Selma Abdelmoneim
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease characterized by immune suppression. Successful treatment is usually followed by immune reconstitution and a dermatosis called post-Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Recently, PKDL was described as one of the immune reconstitution syndromes (IRISs) in HIV/VL patients on HAART. This study aimed to present PKDL as a typical example of paradoxical IRIS in non-HIV/AIDS individuals. Published and new data on the pathogenesis and healing of PKDL was reviewed and presented. The data suggested that PKDL is a typical example of paradoxical IRIS, being a new disease entity that followsVL successful treatment andimmune recovery.PKDL lesions areimmune inflammatory in nature with granuloma, adequate response toimmunochemotherapy, and an ensuing hypersensitivity reaction, the leishmanin skin test (LST).Thedata also suggested that the cytokine patterns of PKDL pathogenesis and healing are probably as follows: an active disease state dominated by IL-10 followed by spontaneous/treatment-induced IL-12 priming, IL-2 stimulation, and INF-𝛾 production. INF-𝛾-activated macrophages eliminate the Leishmania parasites/antigen to be followed by LST conversion and healing. In conclusion, PKDL is a typical example of paradoxical IRIS in non-HIV/AIDS individuals with anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns that are superseded by treatmentinduced proinflammatory cytokines and lesions healing.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/17039
Date: 2015-11-12


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