University of Khartoum

IRnesesaerchcticide Resistance in Anopheles Arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Villages in Central, Northern and south west Ethiopia and Detection of kdr mutation

IRnesesaerchcticide Resistance in Anopheles Arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Villages in Central, Northern and south west Ethiopia and Detection of kdr mutation

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Title: IRnesesaerchcticide Resistance in Anopheles Arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Villages in Central, Northern and south west Ethiopia and Detection of kdr mutation
Author: Balkew, Meshesha; Ibrahim, Muntaser E.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Brooke, Basil D.; Engers, Howard; Aseffa, Abraham; Michael, Teshome Gebre-; Elhassen, Ibrahim
Abstract: Background: Anopheles arabiensis is the major vector of malaria in Ethiopia. Malaria vector control in Ethiopia is based on selective indoor residual spraying using DDT, distribution of long lasting insecticide treated nets and environmental management of larval breeding habitats. DDT and pyrethroid insecticides are neurotoxins and have a similar mode of action on the sodium ion channel of insects. It was therefore necessary to verify the insecticide susceptibility status of An. arabiensis, to better understand the status of cross-resistance between DDT and the pyrethroids in this species as well as to detect a resistant gene. Methods: Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on adults reared from larval and pupal collections from breeding sites at three villages namely: Sodere in the Rift Valley, Gorgora in the north and Ghibe River Valley in the south west of Ethiopia. The occurrence of cross-resistance between pyrethroids and DDT was determined using a DDT selected laboratory colony originally collected from Gorgora. Phenotypically characterized mosquitoes were tested for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles using the standard polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: All An. gambiae s.l. specimens assayed by PCR were identified as An. arabiensis. The knockdown and mortality results showed An. arabiensis resistance to DDT in all villages, resistance to deltamethrin and permethrin in the Ghibe River Valley and permethrin resistance in Gorgora. Bioassay susceptibility tests also indicated the presence of crossresistance between DDT and permethrin, but not between DDT and deltamethrin. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation of leucine to phenylalanine in the sodium ion channel gene was detected in populations from Gorgora and the Ghibe River Valley. Conclusion: Since An. arabiensis shows high levels of resistance to DDT in all villages tested and varying pyrethroid resistance in Gorgora and the Ghibe River valley, precautionary measures should be taken in future vector control operations. Moreover, the status of resistance in other locations in Ethiopia and the spread of resistant gene (s) should be investigated.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/17130
Date: 2015-11-16


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