University of Khartoum

Performance of Flour Improvers in Flour Components and Bread of Four Sudanese Wheat Cultivars

Performance of Flour Improvers in Flour Components and Bread of Four Sudanese Wheat Cultivars

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Title: Performance of Flour Improvers in Flour Components and Bread of Four Sudanese Wheat Cultivars
Author: Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelmohsin Mohammed
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of three flour improvers on the chemical and physical properties of wheat flour and bread making of four wheat cultivars(Elneelain , Debaira, Imam and Bohein) grown in two locations (Hudieba , River Nile State and Wad Madani, Gazera State). Proximate composition of whole and white flour (extraction75%), starch content, damage starch, protein fraction, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis ,amino acid profile, gluten quality and quantity ,sedimentation value, falling number, flour(particles size and colour), and binding ability of improvers to starch and gluten, were carried for the four cultivars. farinograph, extensograph characteristics , macro and micro bread and sensory analysis with and without improvers were determined. The results showed that the wheat flour (extraction75%) and whole wheat flour showed significantly (P≤ 0.05) differences in proximate composition of the studied sample, except moisture and fat content respectively. Starch content of the examined flour samples was 75.47%-79.70% with high damaged starch content for all flours (5.53%- 8.13%). The flour samples recorded 25.20- 31.10%, 9%- 15% and 49.60%-84.60% wet gluten, dry gluten and gluten index, respectively. All cultivars grown in Madani showed significantly higher wet gluten and starch compared to Hudieba, and the reverse for gluten indices studied flour samples had very low levels of lysine(0.001-0.01 mg/100g), glycine(0.004-0.007mg/100g)and tyrosine(0.002-0.009mg/g).Albumin fraction was in the range of 7.50%(Bohein in Hudieba and Elneelain in Madani) to 11.16%(Imam in Madani), gliadin was 22.86%(Bohein in Hudieba)to 29.90%(Debaira in Hudieba) and glutenin 23.90%(Bohein in Hudieba). The uppermost (146.9KDa) was found in Bohein from the two locations and Elneelain in Hudieba. Glutenin high molecular weights greater than 100KDa, ranged from 100.8 to 150.4KDa and LMWs from 20.9 to 50 KDa. ELCO binding ability to starch and gluten ranged from .013mg/g(Imam in Hudieba) to 0.037mg/g (Elneelain in Hudieba) and from 0.043mg/g(Imam in Hudieba) to 0.081mg/g (Debaira in Hudieba), respectively. SSL binding ability to starch and gluten were form 73mg/g( Debaira in Madani) to 120.4mg/g ( Bohein Madani) and from 90.7 mg/g ( Elneelain in Hudieba) to 112.9 mg/g (Imam in Madani) , respectively. FN of untreated samples 482- 712/ sec with sample grown in Hudieda showing significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher values than Madani. Addition of Alphamalt significantly(P≤ 0.05) decreased the FN to 421- 492 /sec . SDS sedimentation values varied between 52 and 63 ml, Hudieba region showed significantly(P≤ 0.05) higher value than Madani, except Debaira cultivar. Barabender farinogram indicated that addition of 0.06g ELCO/kg flour significantly(P≤ 0.05)increased the water absorption, dough stability, dough development time, degree of the dough softening and farinograph quality number for most of the investigated samples. Conversely , 0.2g Alphamalt/kg negatively affected the dough stability, development time and farinograph quality number of all examined flours, which might be due to over activity of the Alphamalt enzyme. Extensograph showed that incorporation of 0.06g ELCO/kg increased the extensograph characteristic of the majority of the cultivars, in contrast 0.2g Alphamalt/kg, deteriorated extensograph characteristics. Bread dimension and volume showed significantly(P≤ 0.05) high positive response to the addition of Alphamalt (0.015-0.2g/kg),ELCO(0.04-0.06g/kg), and SSL(3-4g/kg).however, a mixer made from the three improvers with high dose significantly(P≤ 0.05) improved volume, weight, crumb firmness, and springiness as well as sensory characteristics of all bread samples. In conclusion, Imam grown in both locations and Elneelain in Hudieba proved to have better response to the improvers in bread making than other cultivars. Bohein in Madani had the highest starch-SSL binding 120.4mg/g, and Elneelain in Hudieba starch-ELCO binding was 0.037mg/g, while the highest binding of gluten- ELCO WAS (0.081MG/G) for Debaira in Hudieba and gluten-SSL(112.9mg/g)for Imam Madani.
Description: 238page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/17173
Date: 2015-11-17


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