University of Khartoum

Toxic Effect of Leaf Powder of Zizyphus Spina-christi and Calotropis procera on Larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera:Muscidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

Toxic Effect of Leaf Powder of Zizyphus Spina-christi and Calotropis procera on Larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera:Muscidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

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Title: Toxic Effect of Leaf Powder of Zizyphus Spina-christi and Calotropis procera on Larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera:Muscidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
Author: Hassan, Shima Elfadel Ahmed
Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluatethe toxic effect of Zizyphus spina- christi, and Calotropis procera leaf powder of each plant species on house fly larvae. Aknown amount of the plant powder was added and mixed with rearing mediumin different doses. House fly larvae were collected from the grounds of Kadaro Slaughter House. The larvae were kept in plastic dishes in a rearing medium made up of wet soil, fermented vegetables, chicken intestines, sugar, yeast, chicken droppings and milk powder. These plastic dishes were kept in metal cages covered with mosquito net with dimensions (39cm ×39cm ×39 cm and 60cm ×60cm ×60cm) in the Zoology Department Insectary. The temperature was to 22-39°C. Pupation was normally complete and the life cycle was completed in about one week. Emerged adults were fed on dry sugar, milk powder, yeast and 10% sugar solution in Petri dishes. The flies were reared and kept in the Insectary for six successive generations before they were used in the experiments.Larvicidal bioassay tests in different doses were measured for a period of 24hours. The Lethal Concentration LC50 and LC90 were found to be 193.29 mg/g and 1093.40 mg/g respectively. Larval mortality increased with time and the Lethal Time Fifty (LT50) and the Lethal Time 90 (LT90) were found to be three hours and nineteen hours respectively at1335.98mg/g inZizyphus spina- Christi. InCalotropis procera the Lethal Concentration (LC50) and Lethal Concentration 90 (LC90) were found to be 14.99 mg/g and 118.72 mg/g respectively and LT50 and LT90 were found to be one hour and twenty one hours, respectively at 167 mg/g.The mathematical relationship between the dose and response was subjected to probit analysis. The crude leaf powder of Zizyphus spina -christi and Calotropis procera, mixed with food, affected house fly development in pupal and adult stages.Their movement gradually decreased until they died within twenty four hours. The general colour of dead larvae was brown. The colour became more intense with the passage of time i.e. with prolonged treatment. Some changes took place in the mid gut cells which were disintegrated with continuous intake of high doses. The number of test larvae developed to pupae and adult was less than that of control group. Inhibited development from larvae to pupae were found at high doses of Zizyphus spinachristi and Calotropis procera powder. In addition small sized pupae and adults were produced at lower concentration: 83.50 mg/g in Zizyphus spina-christiand 10.44 mg/g in Calotropis procera. It was concluded that the crude leaf powder of Zizyphus spina-christi and Calotropis procera have lethal effect on the developmental biology of the house fly and could be used as controls for house fly larvae.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/17178
Date: 2015-11-17


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