University of Khartoum

Sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, immune responses and treatment

Sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, immune responses and treatment

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Title: Sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, immune responses and treatment
Author: El-Hassan, Ahmed M.; Meredith, S. E. O.; Yagi, H. I.; Khalil, Eltahir Awad G.; Ghalib, H. W.; Abbas, Kamal; Zijlstra, E.E.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Schoone, G. J.; Ismail, A.
Abstract: The epidemiology, clinical features, pathology, immune responses, diagnosis and treatment of 14 patients with mucosal leishmaniasis in the Sudan are described. The condition occurred mainly in adult males, particularly in certain closely related tribes from the western Sudan. It affected the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and/or the oral mucosa and sometimes followed treated kala azar. The parasites were sometimes confined to the mucosa, sometimes spread to the lymph nodes, and rarely infected the bone marrow and spleen. One of the 2 patients with both visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis differed from classical kala azar cases; his infection was longer lasting, he was leishmanin positive, and his peripheral mononuclear cells proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. Mucosal leishmaniasis following treated kala azar is a similar phenomenon to post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis and post-kala azar uveitis. Post-kala azar mucosal leishmanisis can therefore be added to the other post-kala azar leishmanial infections. Using the polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis with specific probes, and isoenzyme characterization, the causative parasite was identified as Leishmania donovani in 4 patients and as L. major in one. Unlike American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis in the Sudan was not preceded or accompanied by cutaneous lesions and the response to pentavalent antimony or ketoconazole was good.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/17499
Date: 2015-12-10


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