University of Khartoum

Prevalence of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and Theileria annulata Infection in Cattle in Gezira State, Sudan

Prevalence of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and Theileria annulata Infection in Cattle in Gezira State, Sudan

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Title: Prevalence of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and Theileria annulata Infection in Cattle in Gezira State, Sudan
Author: Ahmed, Mohamed Abdalla Mohamed
Abstract: Abstract:This study was conducted in Gezira State during January, May and August 2014 to determine species of ticks infesting cattle and prevalence ofTheileria annulata infection and antibodies. A total of 200 heads of cattle were sampled for ticks, blood smears,lymph node biopsy smears and sera from five study areas: namely, Abugota, El Mihaireba, El Hoda, El Managil and Aburuwaishid. Sampling was carried out once from 5 farms set apart in each area. In each farm, 8 heads of local cattle (Zebu) and crossbred (Friesian x Zebu) of both sex were sampled. The cattle age groups were younger than one year, 1-4 years old and > 4 years. Coat colour of cattle was recorded.The results indicated that cattle were infested with eight species of hard ticks belonging to three genera Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. The species were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi 562(51.6%),Hyalomma anatolicum 289(26.5%), Amblyomma lepidum 35(3.2%),H. rufipes 70(6.4%), R. sanguineus sanguineus 59(5.4%),R. decoloratus 39(3.6%), H. impeltatum 26(2.4%) and H. dromedarii 9(0.8%). The highest mean of ticks infestationwas in cattle aged 1 – 4 years 6.18, followed by cattle > 4 years years 5.66, whereas calves up to one year old carried the lowest mean 4.56. The highest means of ticks were carried by cattle of brown coat 7.52 followed by black and white, black coat colour and white coat colour cattle, in this order. The highest means were on Butana type 7.42 followed by cross-bred 5.52, and the lowest was onKenana type 4.44.Out of 200 blood and biopsy smears (B and BS) 33 (16.5%) showed piroplasms for Theileria spp., while 29 (14.5%) were positive for Theileria spp. schizonts in the lymph node smears (LNS). Seropositivityfor T. annulata using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test was 94 (47%). The highest prevalence of Theileria spp.piroplasms was in Abugota 32.5% followed by El Hoda 20%, El Mihaireba 17.5%, El Managil 7.5% and Aburuwaishid 5%. The prevalence of Theileria spp. schizonts were in El Mihaireba 20%, Abugota 17.5%, El Hoda 15%, El Managil 12.5% and Aburuwaishid 7.5%. The prevalence of T. annulata antibodies were in Abugota 60%, El Mihaireba 50%, El Hoda 47.5%, El Managil 42.5% and Aburuwaishid 35%. The highest prevalence of Theileria spp. piroplasms 22.7% was among the cattle aged 1 – 4 years, while the lowest 9.1% was among cattle > 4 years. Seropositivity of 60.3% was in calves less than one year old as the highest prevalence, while the lowest rate31.8% was recorded among cattle older than four years. The highest prevalence of schizonts 15.9% was among cattle aged1 – 4 years old, while 13.2% was among calves younger than one year. Prevalence of Theileria spp. piroplasms 19.8% and 10.8% were in cross-bred and Zebu breeds, respectively, while schizonts 17.5% and 9.5%, respectively were recorded for the same breeds compared to 51.6% and 39.2% seropositivity. This study concludes that there are three genera of hard ticks and eight species in Gezira State and tropical theileriosisis highly endemic in the state due to high prevalence of H. anatolicum which is themain vector of this diseasel
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/17923
Date: 2015-12-22


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