University of Khartoum

Status of Food Safety Research in Sudan with Special Reference to Milk and Meat Hygiene

Status of Food Safety Research in Sudan with Special Reference to Milk and Meat Hygiene

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Title: Status of Food Safety Research in Sudan with Special Reference to Milk and Meat Hygiene
Author: Ali, Darien Kheder; Ismail, Hayfa Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Atif E.
Abstract: rotection against animal diseases and pests and against food safety threats and preventing their spread is one of the keys to fighting hunger, malnutrition and poverty. However, the most reported outbreaks of food borne disease are due to contamination of foods with zoonotic agents, often during primary production. Moreover, the obvious benefit of food Safety is to reduce food illnesses and fatalities. The aim of this paper is to discuss the status of food safety research in Sudan with special reference to milk and meat hygiene. Zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis can be transmitted by using unhygienic milk or milk products. This article is reviews the above mentioned zoonotic diseases as well as the major pathogens of bovine mastitis such as Staphylococcus areus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and E. coli which have a great impact on public health and poor hygiene in dairy farms responsible for spreading these pathogens. On the other hand, the presence of antibiotic residues using the strain Bacillus subtilis British type ATCC-bb33 as the test organism is reviewed. An attempt was made in Sudan in order to apply Hazard Analysis Critical Control point (HACCP). Fore instance, poor building construction, poor water supply, poor farms hygiene as well as milkers and accumulation of dung and animal waste that induced insect spread are also reviewed. Furthermore, there were two critical control points were assigned for milk distribution chain, the first critical control point was to control raw milk production hygiene before distribution. While, the second critical control point was controlling of milk temperature. HACCP is the main issue of meat safety. Therefore, it has been reported that the isolated bacteria during assessment of meat hygiene practices in slaughter houses were Staph. aureus, Staph. xylosus, Staph. lentus, Staph. auricularis, Staph. hominis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus spp and Escherichia.. Furthermore. These isolated bacteria were either non-pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens, and it is unlikely that these bacteria were from infected organs at postmortem examination, but from pitfalls in application of hygienic measures during skinning and handling of organs and carcasses. Moreover, the hygienic quality of mutton intended for export on basis of surface bacterial contamination which depends on critical contamination levels is also reviewed. 3 On the other hand, the paper reviews the pathological conditions, causing liver condemnations. Fore instance, parasitic infections particularly food borne parasites such as fascioliasis, cysticercosis have been recognized. Specific bacterial causes were limited in hepatic necrosis and abscesses and Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp, Enterobacteria species and Pasteurella spp. were the main isolates. The whole carcasses were mainly condemned due to tuberculosis, cysticercosis, jaundice, pyeamia and septicemia, while abscesses were the main causes of partial condemnations of carcasses. Based on all studies, it is important that milk and meat distribution chain should be monitored by heath and Veterinary authorities to ensure safe food to consumers. Salmonella and other pathogens in poultry carcasses, livers, spleens, intestinal contents and related environments are also reviewed. The following isolates were recognized: Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter hafni, Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Edwardsiella tarda, Erwina herbicola, Yersinia spp., Serratia spp., Morganella spp., Hafnia alvei and Shigella spp. Overall, there is an urgent need for better monitoring and control food borne disease using new technologies.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/18327
Date: 2016-01-10


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