Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999

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    A Note on Culling of Dairy Cows in Elneshasheba Dairy Farm at Medani, Sudan
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1999) Elimam, M.E. ; Ismail, M.H. ; Hamdalla, M.A.
    The records for 1994 cows and 973 lactating ones were collected from Elneshasheba Dairy Farm (for the period 1990-1997) to calculate the culling percentages and to identify the culling reasons for each year. The culling percentages and culling reasons varied from one year to the other. The average culling percentage for the lactating cows was 23.4% and for the herd 11.95%. The main reasons for culling were senility and low milk yield followed by the combined low milk yield and low fertility, damaged teats and low milk yield and bad temper.
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    Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) Eggs
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1999) Mohamadain, F.H. ; Musharaf, N.A. ; El Jack, B.H.
    This study was initiated to compare and contrast Guniea fowl (Numida meleagris) and domestic fowl (White Leghorn - Bovans) eggs, with regard to external and internal physical characteristics and chemical composition. A total of 50 fresh eggs were collected from the two species. Standard measures were used to determine physical and chemical characteristics. Guinea fowl's eggs were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in egg weight, egg length, and egg diameter than Bovans'. There were no significant differences in shape index, while the specific gravity, shell weight and shell thickness of Guinea fowl's eggs were significantly (P<0.01) higher. Yolk and albumen weights of Guinea fowl's eggs showed significantly (P<0.01) lower values, while the albumen height, Haugh units and membrane weight were not different. Guinea fowl's eggss tended to have a high percentage of egg yolk and eggshell and lower percentage of egg albumen than Bovans'. Albumen and yolk of guinea fowl's eggs were significantly (P < 0.05) lower. Ash, nitrogen-free extract and moisture content of eggs of the two breeds were similar. It is concluded that Guinea fowl's eggs have a lower quality compared to Bovans' eggs.
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    Functional Properties of Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Seed Protein Isolate
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1999) Hassan, H.A. ; Nour, A.A.M. ; Ahmed, A.R.
    A protein fraction isolated from defatted watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) flour with 1.0 M NaCl was evaluated for its functional properties. The water retention capacity of the isolate (320 ml/100 g) was found to be similar to cottonseed protein isolate. The fat absorption capacity was 190 ml/100 g. The alkaline pH 11.3 gave the highest foam (89%) with optimum stability around the neutral pH 7. The emulsification capacity was highest at the acidic pH 2.2. Sodium chloride molarity affected foaming and emulsifying properties. Other functionalities such as formation of gels, wettability and bulk density are also reported. Watermelon seed protein isolate can be considered of great potential for incorporation into human food products not only as a dietary protein supplement but also a functional agent in different food systems.
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    Changes in the Functional Properties of Wheat Protein by Polysaccharide Conjugation or Transglutaminase Treatment
    ( 1999) Babiker, E.E ; Mohamed, B.E. ; El Tinay, A.H.
    Salt-soluble wheat protein was conjugated with galactomannan through the Maillard reaction or treated with transglutaminase (TGase). SDS-PAGE patterns of the conjugate and TGase-treated protein showed that both modifications resulted in proteins of higher molecular mass above the stacking gel in both protein and carbohydrate staining gels. Salt-soluble wheat protein was insoluble at pH 6, but after galactomannan conjugation, the protein solubility was greatly improved compared to TGase treatment. Galactomannan conjugated protein resisted heat induced aggregation even after being heated at 90°C for 20 min., while TGase-treated protein resisted heat-induced aggregation up to 80°C, after which it started to coagulate. The emulsifying properties of wheat were greatly improved after conjugation with galactomannan and slightly improved after TGase treatment.
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    Yield Performance of Some Sudanese Sorghum Lines Selected for Recovery Resistance to the Spotted Stem Borer (Chilo partellus
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1999) Laoata, T.B.M.A.
    This study was carried out at ICRISAT, under artificial stem borer infestation, with the following objectives: (1) to study the yield performance of some Sudanese sorghum lines selected for recovery resistance to C. partellus, by relating yield reduction to the extent of damage, and (2) to investigate the effect of season, i.e. post-rainy and rainy, on yield reduction due to attack by the stem borer. Eight sorghum lines were planted under rainy and post-rainy season conditions. The trials were laid as a split plot with three replications and three infestation levels (zero or no infestation, main stem infestation and main stem with tiller infestation). Under the post-rainy season conditions, when temperature was low, yield reduction was independent of dead-heart caused by the borer, whereas in the rainy season the effect of dead-heart formation on grain yield was pronounced. It is concluded that genotype, season and level of infestation have a role in modifying this relationship.