Water-Harvesting Experience in the Arab Region

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Gamal Eldin Mortada Abdo
Ahmed K. Eldaw
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University of khatruom
Water scarcity is one of the major threats facing the Arab World this Century. Extensive development of water resources has taken place in many Arab countries over the last few decades leading to the depletion and deterioration of several water basins. Water availability per capita is continuously decreasing and water shortages are rapidly growing at almost all states. This has called for the need to look for alternative strategies and techniques for solving the water scarcity problem. One technique that has proved to be very successful in providing a feasible solution, and which is believed to be the key element in alleviating the water scarcity problem in many parts of the world in general, and the Arab region in particular is water harvesting (WH). The technique is seen today as a significant opportunity for improving the living condition of many millions of people facing severe water shortage in the Arab region. This is particularly true since only a very small fraction of rainfall is actually harvested through WH projects; the greater proportion of rainfall is lost either to the sea or through evaporation. WH has a long tradition in the Arab region. Consequently, considerable wealth of experience exists in various aspects of the technique. The main purpose of this paper is to make an inventory of the WH techniques and practices in the Arab region. These techniques include dams, terracing, water spreading and water storage structures. The paper also highlights the different experiences and provides an overall technical evaluation of the WH practices in the Arab region. Generally speaking, most of the WH methods have been successful in supporting the water budget in the region, particularly rural areas . However there are some problems and constraints that hinder the use of the technique. These are mainly classified as technical, socioeconomic, environmental, financial and institutional constraints. The Sudan experience in WH is given some emphasis in this paper as the Sudan has the greatest WH potential and experience in combining traditional methods with modern technologies. The paper finally outlines some priority areas for future action and gives several recommendations, which would help in the optimum design and sustainable management of WH projects.
Water harvesting experience Arab region university of khatruom
Gamal Eldin Mortada Abdo, Ahmed K. Eldaw(2016)Water-harvesting experience in the Arab region, Discover the world's research. pp79-90.