University of Khartoum

200BP1 Prototype Hanford Barrier Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2004

200BP1 Prototype Hanford Barrier Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2004

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Title: 200BP1 Prototype Hanford Barrier Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2004
Author: Seedahmed, Gamal H.
Abstract: In FY 2004, monitoring of the prototype Hanford barrier focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, evidence of plant and animal intrusion, and the main components of the water balance. Monitored water-balance components included precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and deep percolation. Precipitation in FY 2004 was 26 percent less than in FY 2003 but was still higher than normal. The seasonal distribution in precipitation was also different from the previous year with a 43-percent reduction in spring precipitation and a 46-percent increase in summer precipitation. The cumulative amount of water received from October 1994, through September 2004, was 2,559.58 mm on the northern half of the barrier, which is the formerly irrigated treatment, and 1,886.71 mm on the southern non-irrigated treatments. Water storage continued to show a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and declining in the spring and summer to a lower limit of about 100 mm in response to evapotranspiration. The 600-mm design storage has never been exceeded. Total drainage from the soil-covered plots range from 2.9E-4 mm to 0.22 mm or 0.003 6 0.004 percent of precipitation. Side-slope drainage was much higher at 20.9 6 2.3 percent of precipitation from the gravel and 18.6 6 5.1 percent from the riprap. There was no runoff from the barrier, but runoff from the BY tank farm following a thunderstorm in May eroded a 45-inchdeep channel into the structural fill at the toe of the riprap slope. Above-asphalt and below-asphalt moisture measurements show no evidence of deep percolation of water. Topographic surveys were conducted on the barrier surface, including the two settlement gauges and 12 creep gauges on the riprap slope using aerial photogrammetry (AP) and a global positioning system (GPS). Comparing the aerial photogrammetry (AP) and global positioning system (GPS) surveys with the traditional survey shows the barrier and side slopes to be stable. Both AP and GPS show potential for considerable cost savings without any loss in accuracy. A relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation in 1994. The formerly irrigated treatments continue to show greater cover of grasses and litter than the non-irrigated treatments. On the formerly irrigated treatments, the mean cover class was 25 to 50 percent for both grasses and shrubs. On the non-irrigated treatments, the mean cover class was 5 to 25 percent from grasses and 25 to 50 percent for shrubs. Species diversity of the vegetative community appears to have stabilized over the past several years. In addition to 12 of 17 species present in 2003 being present in 2004, two additional species were encountered. Sagebrush continues to flourish with shrubs along the perimeter showing higher biomass yield than the interior shrubs. There is evidence of sagebrush seedlings recruitment but not of rabbitbrush; the presence of gray rabbitbrush appears is declining as the barrier surface continues to stabilize. Use of the barrier surface by insects and small mammals is also evident. Small mammal burrowing on the barrier surface has become more prevalent in recent years, suggesting that the restored barrier surface is beginning to function as a recovering ecosystem. Small-mammal burrowing on the top and sides of the barrier is most prevalent on the finergrained and disturbed soils while active ant mounds were observed on the northern and western slopes.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/20467
Date: 2016-04-17


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