University of Khartoum

Spectroscopic Studies on Lead and Cadmium Contents In Some Kohl Brands in Khartoum

Spectroscopic Studies on Lead and Cadmium Contents In Some Kohl Brands in Khartoum

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Title: Spectroscopic Studies on Lead and Cadmium Contents In Some Kohl Brands in Khartoum
Author: Yousef, Tsneem Tagelsir Khider
Abstract: Kohl eye liner, an ancient eye cosmetic used thousands of years ago for beautification, protection from the sun light and for treatment from bacterial infections. On the other hand, this eye makeup also may be a source of heavy metals toxicity mainly lead and cadmium, ocular phototoxicity and some eye diseases. According to the published works, toxicity of kohl is a conflicting subject that still didn’t give clear answer to the question whether kohl can be a source of heavy metals toxicity or not. Ocular phototoxicity occurs when a drug or any substance applied to the eye contains a UV absorbing compound longer than 295 nm. Because Sudan lacks the regulations that safeguard the import and selling of cosmetics, it is important to study this type of cosmetic to assess the safety of some different common brands. Objectives: Determination of heavy metals contents: lead and cadmium in some collected kohl brands and comparing them with the allowable limits, studying their UV spectra and relating the findings with the claims by kohl users and ophthalmologists. Methods Twenty two different kohl brands were collected and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for heavy metals quantitative determination, UV spectrophotometry was used for UV qualitative analysis of kohl samples and optical microscopy was used for morphological studies. Results: The concentrations in the collected brands ranged between (2.80-428.35) ppm for lead and (0.12-5.86) ppm for cadmium. Five brands out of 20 exceeded the allowable concentrations for lead and one brand exceeded the allowable concentration for cadmium. UV analysis showed high absorption, 8 samples out of 19 had absorption longer than 295nm. All particles of powdered kohl forms were fine and similar. Conclusion: As kohl is one of the regularly used cosmetics, presence of hazardous metals like lead and cadmium in high concentrations as found in this research may be of concern due to accumulation. In addition, it is worth to investigate the protection or harm of kohl against UV light and the absence of allergens that may cause irritation should be assured.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/20904
Date: 2016-05-01


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