University of Khartoum

Qualitative Risk Assessment And Socioeconomic Impacts Of Avian Influenza In Khartoum State

Qualitative Risk Assessment And Socioeconomic Impacts Of Avian Influenza In Khartoum State

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Title: Qualitative Risk Assessment And Socioeconomic Impacts Of Avian Influenza In Khartoum State
Author: Abdelgalil, Nawal Abdalla Mohamed
Abstract: Avian Influenza (AI) is a transboundary animal disease with a huge socio-economic effect on poultry sector. Sudan witnessed the first outbreak of AI during March - August 2006 with damage estimated as US$ 200 million. The source of the outbreak is not known until now. The research results showed the possibilities of mutation of the Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus (LPAIV) into Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) under unfavorable production practices in Khartoum State. According to different research carried out in the last seven years, LPAIV is silently circulating in many poultry farms in Khartoum State representing the most serious problem for poultry sector. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative risk assessment for the possibilities of the re-occurrence of AI outbreak in Khartoum State. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted through interviews using five structured questionnaires during July 2012 to March 2013. Seventy questionnaires were distributed to poultry producers with respondent’s rate of 45.7%. All the data collected were analyzed using the software programme SPSS version 17. Results revealed that 97% of producers had higher level of education and this can ease their understanding and adoption of the study recommendations. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of producers towards prevention and control of AI disease scored 34.4%, 68.8% and 15.6 % for good level, respectively. These levels are not enough to protect poultry sector from the disease occurrence and spreading. Risk factors associated with poultry farms, 11.5% of farms did not use all in all out system of production, and 38.5% of farms were located in areas of migratory birds resting sites. 100% of the producers were not satisfied with the rate and time of compensation. 36.4% of the producers needed 1-3 years to return to the level of 25% of the activities before the AI outbreak. Two flocks of poultry (closed system farm, backyard) were raised under restrict biosecurity measures in areas known with the presence of LPAI. The negative results for the presence of AI antibodies ensured the importance of applying biosecurity measures to protect birds from diseases. When risk assessment to the introduction of HPAI disease in Khartoum state and its spread among poultry farms was done, it was found that the introduction of the disease through importing day old chicks or hatching eggs to be very low or negligible but the risk of transmission of the LPAIV to open system farms due to mixing of migratory birds and domestic wild birds was estimated to be medium to high. The low level of the biosecurity measures adoption made the possibility of mutation of the LPAIV into HPAIV high. Spreading of the disease among farms was estimated medium to low, depending on the production practices at farm level. Khartoum North Province was expected to be the origin of the next outbreak, (as in 2006).The study concluded by general recommendation which includes the necessity to restructure the farm distribution, needs to establish a system to enforce the veterinary rules and legislation, urgent needs for effective extension services, availability for diagnostic facilities and training institutes. Special recommendation to control the AI disease includes linking and backed up of the National Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan to the legal act, effort should be exerted to containment the disease at its origin in poultry, raising the awareness of poultry producers in Khartoum State on the risk of the circulating low pathogenic avian influenza virus in the poultry farms and its ability to mutate when not following the biosecurity measures.
Description: 281 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/21389


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