Vol.12, No. 3, 2004
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ItemResponse of Tomato to Different Irrigation Methods and Dripper Types Under Greenhouse Conditions(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004)A glasshouse experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons (2000/01 and 2001/02) using a sandy soil and four dripper types with four irrigation systems. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of these treatments on vegetative growth, yield and quality of the variety Carmelo of tomato and N, K and P contents of the soil. The study was carried out at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station of King Faisal University in Al-Hassa oasis, which is characterized by hot and dry climate. The results showed that using adjustable dripper resulted in the highest values of plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, root length, dry/fresh weight of root (%), average fruit weight, number of fruits/plant and yield/plant, as well as N%, K%, P% and electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil. Using 20 cm subsurface irrigation gave the highest values for plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, dry/fresh weight of plant (%), root length, dry/fresh weight of root (%), average fruit weight, number of fruits/plant, yield/plant (kg), and N%, P%, K% and EC of the soil. The interaction between dripper type and irrigation system produced the highest values for all vegetative and reproductive parameters, fruit quality and N%, K%, P% and EC of the soil. It is concluded that adjustable dripper with 20 cm subsurface irrigation could be useful for enhancing the vegetative growth and total yield of tomato plants in Al-Hassa oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
ItemA Note on the Effect of Plant Population Density and Variety on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Yield in the Vertisols of the Sudan Savannah Zone(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004)A three-year experiment was carried out in West Kordofan State during 1999, 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to study the effect of four population densities and four varieties of sorghum on seed yield. The varieties did not show significant difference in the number of days to 50% flowering, but differed significantly in plant height and seed yield per hectare. The effect of plant density on seed yield was significant. All cultivars gave their highest yield under the highest density (125 000 plants/ha), and the variety Wad Ahmed out yielded the other three varieties. The interaction between the cultivar and plant density did not significantly affect the seed yield.
ItemThe Interaction Between Prolonged Lactation Lengths and Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in Butana Dairy Farm Sudan(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004)The interactions between prolonged lactation periods and some productive and reproductive traits were investigated in thirty-two Friesian cows in Butana Dairy farm, Sudan. Age at first calving significantly (P£0.01) affected lactation length. Lactation lengths of 470.5 days were associated with the age group of 650–700 days, while longer lactation periods (501.2 days) were obtained at the age group of 700–750 days. Calving interval showed a non-significant correlation (r = 0.16) with lactation length. Parity number showed a significant effect (P£0.01) on lactation lengh and a positive correlation (r > 0.01) with it. The longest lactation (506.2 days) was obtained in the third parity and the shortest (472.3 days) in the fourth parity. The number of services per conception indicated a significant effect (P£0.01) on lactation length. The shortest lactation length (464.3 days) was recorded for the group which received more than eight services, while the longest (499.4 days) was recorded for the group that received 6–8 inseminations. A positive correlation (r = 0.620) between milk yield and lactation length was obtained. The average daily milk yields of 100 days, 305 days and more than 305 days were 21.3, 17.66 and 7.43 kg, respectively. Lactation curves revealed that parity one, two and four were about 16 months, and the third parity was 17 months. Mathematical calculation of persistency of the first, second, third and fourth parities were 1.508, 1.202, 1.291 and 1.223, respectively. However, persistency, based on lactation length was 1.289, 1.484, 1.648 and 1.009 from the shortest to the longest lactation lengths. When the studied cows (32) were medically treated, 15% of them responded to the treatment (6%, 6% and 3% for the first, second and third parities, respectively). The culling rate (63%) was 38%, 13%, 9%, and 3% during the first, second, third and fourth parities, respectively.
ItemStratification of Selected Soil Properties as Influenced by Tillage(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004)Stratification ratio values (SRVs) of the soil characteristics is a quantitative parametric approach proposed in this study to reveal the magnitude of favourable conditions and/ or adverse effects imposed by applying long-term conventional tillage system for soil management. This study was conducted in selected sandy clay loam soils belonging to the soil order Aridisols. The study showed that SRVs of soil organic carbon in surface soil are very low (0.75 to 1.01), compared to that of the subsurface, suggesting high rate of mineralization in the soil surface. Lower ratio values of bulk densities (0.77 to 0.98) were accompanied by higher ratio values of total porosity (0.51 to 1.18) in subsurface soils, indicating improvement in the physical properties. These findings could be considered as land quality indicators improving management technical specification packages and; adding input to the range of characteristics of the established soil series and; to the land quality set for the designation of land suitability classes elsewhere in the Sudan.
ItemManagement Parameters Affecting Wheat Harvesting Losses at the Rahad Agricultural Scheme, Sudan(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004)The management parameters affecting wheat harvesting losses at the Rahad Agricultural Scheme were studied. These parameters included administrative supervision, weed infestation, plant density and presence of bunds. Ten field farms from each of the three "groups" of the scheme were used for collecting data for each management parameters using stratified sampling technique. The data were collected in 1996/97 season on the effect of management parameters on preharvest losses, machine losses (processing and header) and total losses. The results indicated that the absence of close field supervision had a highly significant (P£0.01) effect on header losses, total machine losses and total harvest losses, and a significant (P£0.05) effect on processing losses. The results also showed a highly significant (P£0.01) increase of processing losses, due to weed infestation and variation in plant density, while the presence of field bunds had highly