University of Khartoum

Quality Assessment of Pasture and Milk of Camels Around Shendi Area, Sudan

Quality Assessment of Pasture and Milk of Camels Around Shendi Area, Sudan

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Title: Quality Assessment of Pasture and Milk of Camels Around Shendi Area, Sudan
Author: Hammed, Randa Hassan Ali Mohammed
Abstract: This study was based on collection of information on the management system and rearing of camels in areas around Shendi. In addition to evaluate the nutritive value of grazing pasture (trees and shrubs (selected by camels in western and eastern Shendi during autumn, winter and summer. It also aimed to correlate the components of the pasture to some factors associated with quality of camel milk in different seasons of the year. The camel herders socioeconomic data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, forty one samples of grasses, shrubs and browse trees were collected during the different seasons. The chemical composition of the plant samples were determined. The milk samples were collected from 75 healthy female camels grazing at western and eastern Shendi area during autumn, winter and summer. The samples collected were then investigated for their chemical composition (protein, lactose, total solids and density), also the microbiological examination (total bacterial count, coliform count and yeast and mould counts) were evaluated. The results of the study showed that the camel production in Shendi area followed a traditional system, in which camels owners as a group rent a shepherd who usually migrates with all camels, about 300 km at the beginning of autumn to places where rich pastures are available. The chemical analysis of the collected plant samples revealed that the crude protein content was higher in western Shendi during autumn and summer compared with that obtained from eastern Shendi. However, the fat and crude fiber of the grazing pasture were higher in eastern Shendi than western Shendi during autumn. In addition the NDF, ADF, ADL and Tannin were lower in the plants collected from western Shendi than eastern Shendi during autumn. The chemical analysis of raw camel milk collected during autumn in western Shendi showed that the mean value of protein, density, total solids and lactose were 3.29±0.04%, 1.029±0.01mg/cm3, 12.4±0.39%, 4.50±0.07%, respectively. However values during winter were 3.51±0.07%, 1.031±0.02 mg/cm3, 13.5±0.29% and 4.78±0.10%, while during summer the values were 3.64±0.13, 1.031±0.01mg/cm3, 12.07±0.37 and 4.74±0.08, respectively. The camel milk samples from eastern Shendi during autumn revealed 3.50±0.10%, 1.03±0.02mg/cm3, 12.9±0.57% and 4.80±0.13% for protein, density, total solids and lactose, respectively. The values during winter were 3.32±0.05%, 1.029±0.01mg/cm3, 12.7±0.37% and 4.52±0.06% for protein, density, total solids and lactose, respectively. During summer the values reveled 3.34±0.06%, 1.03±0.02 mg/cm3, 11.8±0.46% and 4.59±0.08%, respectively. There were significant (P>0.05) differences in total bacterial, coliform and yeast and mould counts in camel milk samples collected from western and eastern Shendi during the different seasons. The total bacterial count of camel milk was high during summer in western Shendi. However, in eastern Shendi the total bacterial count of camel milk was higher during winter, The coliform count of camel milk was high during autumn and summer. Yeast and mould counts were higher during autumn in western Shendi, while in eastern Shendi, the yeast and mould counts of camel milk were high during winter. Also it was found that the chemical composition of milk was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the age of camel and parity order. In addition the daily yield of milk was variable in western and eastern Shendi during the different seasons. Pasture, parity order and the age of the camels milk had an impact on camel milk. This study concluded that the quality of camel milk is affected by the seasons and locations, there are some factors that affect milk of camels in traditional pastoral system (nomadic). The study recommended that more research on camel milk in pastoral system should be done, in addition provision of some services is essential for the development of camel herders.
Description: 157 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/22600


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