University of Khartoum

Antioxidants and Thyroid Inhibitors of Some Local Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.)) Cultivars and Their Effects in Rats

Antioxidants and Thyroid Inhibitors of Some Local Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.)) Cultivars and Their Effects in Rats

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Title: Antioxidants and Thyroid Inhibitors of Some Local Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.)) Cultivars and Their Effects in Rats
Author: Elnadeef, Muna Ahmed Ismail
Abstract: The overall objective of this research work was to identify and characterize compounds found in pearl millet component from different cultivars and responsible for inhibition of thyroid peroxidase and its possible impact on Goiter development. Three pearl millet cultivars were selected namely; Ashana, Demby Red and Demby Yellow to fulfill the specific objectives of this study. Dried seeds grain was crushed to powder using commercial grinding machine and prepared for analysis. Proximate were analyzed using standard method. Antioxidant capacity was determined spectrophotometrically. Polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Microwave assisted digestion system, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used for the determination of trace metals. ELISA techniques were used for the assay of T3, T4, TPO and lipids profile. A bioassay setup was designed in which, the selected cultivar, (Dempy red,) was prepared in three different forms; whole grain, de-hulled and boiled. Different doses were administered orally to male Whistler Albino rats daily for six weeks during which blood samples were collected at a frequency of two weeks. Blood samples were analyzed for thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), thyroperoxidase (TPO) enzyme, cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS® version 20. Proximate analyses depict insignificant differences between cultivars. Statistical analysis reveals negative correlation between crude protein content and oil content. The correlation is significant at P >0.05 level. Similar inverse correlation observed for crude protein content and energy value at P >0.05 level. The total phenolic content of pearl millet ranged from 306.9 to 324.9 mg GAE/100g; with Demby yellow being the highest and Ashana, being the lowest. The three cultivars were signified by the presence of the polyphenol, trans-Cinnamic acid being the highest with a concentration ranged from 47.9mg/g for Dempy yellow to 49.2mg/g for Dempy red. Total flavonoid concentrations ranged from 3.05 to 6.45 GE mg/g with Dempy Red being the highest and Ashana being the lowest. The concentration follow the pattern DR > DY > AS. De-hulling and boiling has no significant effect on total flavonoids concentration. Individual flavonoid mean concentration follow the pattern Apigenin > Quericitrin > Naringin > Quericitin > Acacetin. Apigenin is the highest flavonoid found in pearl millet (1.006 µg/g), and De-hulling did not affect the total content of flavonoids. Trace metals analysis revealed no differences within the cultivars and varieties for the nutritional elements e.g. Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe, while there is a considerable difference for anti-nutritional element e.g. Zn, Ti, Mn, Cu, Cr, and Pb. Statistical analyses reveals strong positive correlation for some pairs and inverse correlation for others. Statistical analyses showed strong correlation between Selenium (Se) and Iron (Fe). Among the three cultivars of pearl millets, genotypes of Ashana were found to be more genetically closely related to Dempy yellow than Dempy red one. All animals treated with different doses of pearl millet showed lower relative thyroid weight compared to control; but higher relative thyroid weight compared to the positive control. Treatment with boiled form showed slight decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations compared to the de-hulled and whole grain. The T3 and T4 mean concentration with respect to dose administered follow the pattern; whole grain > de-hulled > boiled in a dose dependent manner of 2.5 >5.0 > 7.5 g/100ml with only exception for T3 for the group received boiled 7.5 g/100 ml. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) level of all treated groups of rats was decreased, significantly compared to the control group by a value of 33% inhibition effect. Pearl millet administered decreased the activity of TPO in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with different doses of pearl millet showed an inversely proportional relation with cholesterol and HDL levels, and directly proportional with triglycerides. In conclusion, the present study present new findings, which indicate that three Sudanese cultivars of pearl millet consumption showed an anti-thyroidal effect (Hypothyroidism), decrease in body weight and abnormalities in thyroid and liver appearance. Pronounced effects have been depicted by the administration of Apigenin, which validates the above findings that leads to sound questions and answers of anti-thyroidal or goitrogenic effects of pearl millet.
Description: 184 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/23180


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