University of Khartoum

Physicochemical Characteristics of Bee Honey and Detection of its Adulteration in Khartoum State

Physicochemical Characteristics of Bee Honey and Detection of its Adulteration in Khartoum State

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Title: Physicochemical Characteristics of Bee Honey and Detection of its Adulteration in Khartoum State
Author: Mohammed, Hiba Adil Mahmoud
Abstract: The Objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of bee honey and identify adulterated bee honey in Khartoum State. Fifteen samples of honeywere collected from local markets in Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman . 5 samples from each locality. The 15 samples were analyzed for refractive index, pH, moisture, ash, free acidity, lactone, total acidity, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and fructose: glucose ratio (f:g).The results showed that: the refractive index for all samples of honey was in the range 1.451-1.504. All honey samples were slightly acidic and gave pH of 4.13- 4.56. The average of moisture content for the three areas of Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman were 15.17 %, 15.95 % and 28.30 %, respectively , the samples obtained from Omdurman disagreed with the standard of Sudan SSMO (2007) which stated that Sudanese honey should not contain moisture more than 20%. The average of ash content for the three areas of Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman were 0.40 %, 0.30 % and 0.35 %, respectively, all samples were in agreement with the SSMO (2007)which stated that Sudanese honey should not contain ash more than 1%. The free acidity for all samples of honey was in the range 7.38 - 15.17 meq/kg. The lactonic was in the range 0.83 - 3.40meq/kg. The average of total acidity for the three areas of Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman were 12.76 meq/kg, 11.09meq/kg and 12.21meq/kg, respectively, all sampleswere in agreement with the SSMO (2007)which stated that Sudanese honey should not contain acid more than 50 milliequiv acid/kg. The results of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was (+ve) in five samples (two samples from Khartoum, two samples from Bahri and one sample from Omdurman). The fructose content for all honey samples was in the range 33.20%-53.84%.The glucose content was in the range 23.25% -34.66%. The average of sucrose content for the three areas of Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman were 3.70 %, 3.50 % and 1.59 %, respectively,all of sampleswere in agreement with the SSMO (2007)which stated that Sudanese honey should not contain sucrose more than 10%. The maltose content was in the range 0.71%- 4.99%.Fructose:glucose ratio (f:g) was in the range 1.05-1.46. Analysis of physicochemical properties of honey samples revealed highly significant (P‹0.01) differences.Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the honey samples were slightly acidic, in the pH range 4.13-4.56. Theash content, lactonic , total acidity, glucose and sucrose were higher in the samples obtained from Khartoum. While the free acidity, fructose, maltose and fructose: glucose ratio were higher in the samples obtained from Bahri. The moisture content was higher in the samples obtained from Omdurman as it was above the limits of standards of Sudan. The study recommends the establishment of efficient management system during the processing, collection, storage and marketing of honey to avoid adulteration. Also there is need for improvement and development of new analytical techniques to detect adulteration of honey.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/23205


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