University of Khartoum

Studies on the Propagation of Alkirkir Tree (Vangueria madagascariensis Gmel.)

Studies on the Propagation of Alkirkir Tree (Vangueria madagascariensis Gmel.)

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Title: Studies on the Propagation of Alkirkir Tree (Vangueria madagascariensis Gmel.)
Author: Elhassan, Yaseen Abdalla Merghani
Abstract: The study aimed to find the best method of propagation for Vangueria madagascariensis Gmel., an endangered tree species in Sudan. Three approaches were followed: propagation by seeds, vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and micro propagation using tissue culture techniques. Mature fruits were collected from Kordofan States. Seeds were extracted with suitable methods. Seed characteristics were identified. These included seeds morphology, structure, seed storage materials, seed moisture content, seed viability, seedling morphology and development. Germination type and number of seeds/ Kg were also studied. Vegetative propagation of V. madagascariensi using stem cuttings included the effect of cutting size, season and auxin treatment. Micropropagation using tissue culture techniques was carried out. Direct and indirect regeneration using callus cultures were investigated. Tissue cultures were initiated from different organs, radicle, hypocotyls and cotyledons. The obtained results showed that all the fruits examined contained sound, relatively large seeds and the percentage of abortive seeds is less than 1%. The seed is enclosed in hard, woody endocarp, the testa is thin, papery and brown in colour. There is a white endospermic layer immediately underneath the testa. The embryo is prominent consists of thick radicle, short hypocotyl and 2 fleshy cotyledons. Seeds were germinated very rapidly, normal seedlings were developed, the percentage of germination was 100%. All extracted and tested seeds were viable. This was confirmed by TTZ test. The moisture content is low (1.7%). No seed dormancy was identified. The germination is the epigeal type. The seedling exuded blue pigment which seem to be an iridoid alkaloid. Chemical analysis showed that the main stored materials in the seed are lipids and proteins. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous methanolic and chloroformic fruit and seed extracts of V. madagascariensis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, coumarins , flavonoids , tannins and saponins. Alkaloids, coumarins , flavonoids and tannins were present in high levels. The results of vegetative propagation by stem cuttings showed that cuttings of 1.0 cm diameter were better than larger ones. The best season for removing the cuttings is the winter. IBA has enhanced axillary bud sprouting on the cuttings, but no rooting was observed in treated cuttings. The results of Tissue cultures showed the high potentiality of V.madagascariensis to produce callus on MS medium supplemented with auxins 2,4-D(2mg/l) combined with BAP (2.5 mg/l). The white coloured calli showed vigorous growth from early stages of development from hypocotyls and cotyledonary explants. IBA was more effective than 2,4-D. Direct micro-propagation showed that explants initiated roots only, While indirect micropropagation using callus tissue gave a single shoot only per culture vessel. It was concluded that V.madagascariensis propagation by seeds is the best method because this species is characterized with high purity and germinability. The seedling survival and development is good. Vegetative propagation methods need more research to be used in reforestation program for this endangered species.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/23872


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