University of Khartoum

Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in-Shell Chicken Embryos, Khartoum, Sudan

Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in-Shell Chicken Embryos, Khartoum, Sudan

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Title: Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in-Shell Chicken Embryos, Khartoum, Sudan
Author: Adam, Abeer Abass Mohamed
Abstract: Bacterial infections of poultry are worldwide which can lead to reduction of hatchability and early embryonic death. This study was conducted to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from dead in shell chicken embryos. One hundred and seventy fertile chicken eggs diagnosed by candling as dead in shell embryos at different periods of incubation were collected during the period from Winter to Summer 2013 from four sources; 100 were from hatcheries in two commercial poultry companies in Khartoum and Bahry, and 70 were from the hatcheries of the Faculties of Animal production in the University of Khartoum and Sudan University of Science and Technology. In the laboratory surfaces of eggs were disinfected and shells were broken and internal organs (spleen, heart and intestine) of embryos were cultured immediately on Blood agar and MacConkey,s agar plates which were incubated aerobically at 37oC for 24-48 hours. Of the 170 samples 95(55.88%) gave aerobic positive bacterial growth were as 75(44.11%) negative for growth. A total of 135 isolates were recovered of which 80 (59.25%), were Gram positive bacteria belonging to the genera Staphylococcus 20(25%), Micrococcus 11(13.75%), Lactobacillus 11(13.75 %), Arachnia 9(11.25 %), Bacillus 7(8.75%), Aerococcus 6(7.5 %), Actinomyces 5(6.25%), Streptococcus 3(3.75%), Enterococcus 3(3.75%), Stomatococcus 2(2.5 %),Corynebacterium 2(2.5%) and Rothia 1(1.25%). There were 55 (40.74%) isolates of Gram negative bacteria belonging to the genera Klebsiella10 (18.18%), Escherichia 7(12.72%), Enterobacter 6 (10.90%), Haemophilus 6(10.90%), Acinetobacter 5(9.09%), Salmonella 3 (5.45%), Provendica 3(5.45%), Citrobacter 2(3.63%), Proteus 2 (3.63%), Serratia 2(3.63%), Pseudomonas 2(3.6%), Bordetella 2(3.6%), Neisseria 1(1.8%), Yerrsinia 1(1.8%), Flavobacterium 1(1.8%), Aeromonas 1(1.8%) and Pasteurella 1(1.8%).The predominant isolates were Gram positive bacteria of which Staphylococcus and Micrococcus constituted 38.75% of the isolated Gram positive bacteria. Most of the isolates were from the hatcheries of the two Faculties of Animal Production compared with those of the two commercial poultry companies. This might be due to poor hygiene and heavy fecal contamination of egg shells, incubator and hatchery environment in the Faculties of Animal Production. Deaths were high in summer (May) compared with the other seasons of the year and at late stages of incubation; from 18 to 21day of incubation, due to temperature variation and fluctuation in humidity which lead to adhesion ,dehydration and mortality of the chicks. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were conducted for Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Aerococcus, Stomatococcus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Rothia, Acinetobacter, Neisseria, Klebsiella, Yerrsinia, Providenica, and Haemophilus isolates using diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were Tetracycline and Gentamycin as they were effective against all bacteria tested (100%), followed by Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin which were effective against (92.30%) of the bacterial isolates and Co-trimoxal which was effective against 88.46% of the bacteria.In conclusion several factors including bacterial infections, parent health nutrition and management are the main causes of embryo death. Of the bacteria Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Haemophilus and Salmonella species were the most significant pathogenic bacteria. Possible sources of contamination in the farm were investigated and included egg shells, incubator and hatchery environment. Good hygiene together with improvement of environmental conditions and proper management will reduce death of chicken embryos.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/23966


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