University of Khartoum

Bacterial and Fungal Contamination of Paper Currency in Circulation in Khartoum State,Sudan

Bacterial and Fungal Contamination of Paper Currency in Circulation in Khartoum State,Sudan

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Title: Bacterial and Fungal Contamination of Paper Currency in Circulation in Khartoum State,Sudan
Author: Abesher, Dalia Abesher Abdelwahab
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to isolate and identify bacterial and fungal contaminants of some Sudanese paper currency notes. This study was conducted in Khartoum State (Central market in Khartoum, Central station in Bahri, and Alshohdaa market in Omdurman) in the period January – March, 2015. Fifty paper bills of two denominations (2 and 5 Pounds) were collected randomly from different sources including street vendors, butchers, food sellers, public commuter (micro-buses), and supermarkets. Each bill was transported to the laboratory for microbiological analysis. A sterile cotton swab was dipped in sterile normal saline and rubbed on both surfaces of notes and used to inoculate blood agar and MacConkey’s agar plates and they incubated aerobically at 35-37°C for 24-48 hours and then examined for bacterial growth .Isolated bacteria were examined for colony charcteristic, Gram reaction, motility and biochemical test for identification of the isolates. The study revealed that the frequency of bacterial isolation from currencies of different sources was 26.8% from cafeterias, 24.6% from street vendors, 19% from supermarkets, 17.6% from butchers, and 12% from commuters. The rate of bacterial isolation from 5 and 2 pounds were 60% and 40%, respectively. The same swabs were used to inoculate Sabaroud's dextrose agar (SDA) and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 1-3 weeks. Presumptive identification of the fungal isolates was based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the cultures. The frequency of fungal isolation was 33.3% from transporters, 22.2% from butchers, 22.2 % from street vendors, 22.2% from supermarkets and 0.0% from cafeterias. The rate of fungal isolation from 5 and 2 pound denominations were 44.4% and 55.6%, respectively. The isolated bacteria were: Bacillus spp(72.5%), Micrococcus spp(12.1%) ,Aerococcus (3.5%) , Eubacterium spp(1.4%) , Chromobacterium spp(1.4%),Corynebacteriumpseudodiphtheriticum (1.4%) , Stomatococcus spp(1.4%) , Staphylococcusaureus(0.7%) ,Staphwarneri(0.7%) ,Klebsiellapneumoniae (0.7%) ,Kurthia spp(0.7%) ,Acinetobacter (0.7%),Hafniaalvei(0.7%),Flavobacterium spp(0.7%) , and Legionella spp(0.7%). The most isolated fungal species were Aspergillus spp(66.7%) ,Cryptococcus spp(22.2%), and Alterneria(11.11%). Disc diffusion test was used to isolate bacteria for antibiotic sensitivity test. The bacterial isolates were sensitive to Cefotaxime(30mcg), followed Ciprofloxacin (5 mcg), Gentamycin(10 mcg) and Tetracycline (30 mcg) and they were resistant to Ampicillin (20 mcg). This study it was concluded that Sudanese paper currency are contaminated with different types of microorganisms, including potential pathogens that cause disease in healthy individuals and opportunistic pathogens that cause disease in hospitalized and immunocompromized patients. Washing hand thoroughly by food handlers at restaurant or at home after handling currency and before handling food was recommended to reduce
Description: 78 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/24677


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