University of Khartoum

Evaluation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of participatory Development ( A case study of ADS Umm Kadada, North Darfur, Sudan 1992- 2015)

Evaluation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of participatory Development ( A case study of ADS Umm Kadada, North Darfur, Sudan 1992- 2015)

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Title: Evaluation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of participatory Development ( A case study of ADS Umm Kadada, North Darfur, Sudan 1992- 2015)
Author: Hilal, Al Hadi Fadeel Ragab
Abstract: The top – down "development approach" which was practiced in the Sudan has resulted in a non – sustainable development practices in which the local population needs and natural resources conservation and protection is completely neglected. Consequently, the "bottom – up approach" is used and advocated by area development schemes (ADS) as an alternative to the conventional "top – down approach" The objectives of this research is to analyze and discuss the participatory development approach applied by the area development scheme (ADS) Umm Kaddada in North Darfur as a useful tool for achieving sustainable development in the area. Also, the study aims to present the use of social animation by local communities to identify, prioritize and formulate a comprehensive development activities. Moreover, to examine the role of the traditional leaders, local institutions in development. The study traced the planning and implementation phases of ADS Umm Kaddada from 1989 – 2015. During the execution part of the planning phase, a dialogue was made through a series of social animation sessions with local communities who fully involve and actively participated in identifying a series of priority projects for implementation. To attain its objectives the research adopted descriptive approach based on primary and secondary information. The study is based on the available materials about the topic under study collected mainly from university libraries', UNDP reports, Ministry of Finance and Economic development report, Ministry of International cooperation reports, and Umm Kaddada ADS reports. Also, the project staff were interviewed for information regarding the planning and implementation phases of the project. The primary data were collected through a questionnaire using simple random sample; additional data include formal and informal interviews and focus group discussion. The sample size amounted to 300 households from Umm Kaddada Rural Council. The result of the study showed that village sandugs were established at the community level and provided with the revolving fund to enable the communities to run and continue development activities, there were effectively operating village development sandugs. The community based projects implemented in the area have tangible results at the local level. Many projects identified by the local communities during phase one has been implemented. Women participation in the project area were obviously observed, they have been fully involved in development projects and were able to get project resources and equally participated. The successful implementation of environmental activities including rehabilitation, forestry, greenbelts and range activities has contributed to raise the environmental awareness among the local communities. Traditional leaders are found to be very influential at the local level. They played major and active roles in community mobilization and participation in communal public works in the field of environmental conservation and protection of forest and range lands. Also, many conflicts induced by environmental degradation are resolved through discussion and medication. The involvement of different ethnic groups in ADS program has developed a significant cross – ethnic acceptance between all tribes in the study area. As a result of the technical assistance of ADS the farm production has increased which is evidently increased the income of the farmers in the area. The project area is one of the most poorest areas in the country, frequently faced by drought and desertification hazards, with fragile economy, consequently most of positive results achieved by the project would not expected to survive more without close monitoring and follow up with participation of concerned partners particularly, the community, locality and the state. To overcome the above problems, sustain and maximize the positive results achieved by the project interventions the following specific arrangement is recommended: 1- Establishment of supportive technical unit for the sustainability of the activities composed of technical government departments namely, agricultural services, forestry, range and pasture, animal resources, and social welfare. The state and federal government should provide the necessary fund for the operation of the unit. 2- The implementation of environmental conservation and protection activities should be continued, with introduction of appropriate intermediate technology . 3- The support of the central beneficiaries’ entities is of vital importance, to enable their members to perform their duties effectively, additional intensive training, particularly in fields of accounting and monitoring and evaluation is required. 4- The federal technical units such as forestry department should secure annual budget for its operations and mobilize support from national programmes that funded through foreign donors. 5- Mobilize financial and technical support from national, international organizations and other funding sources through ministry of international cooperation.
Description: 231 page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25184


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