University of Khartoum

Pharmacological Studies on Maerua pseudopetalosa and Solanum dubium

Pharmacological Studies on Maerua pseudopetalosa and Solanum dubium

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Title: Pharmacological Studies on Maerua pseudopetalosa and Solanum dubium
Author: Sulaiman, Hayder Eltaher
Abstract: Background: Due to their easy reach to all grades of community plants are considered to be valuable source of treatment for a high variety of ailments.This study aims to investigate the pharmacological aspects of alcoholic extraxt of Maerua pseudopetalosa roots (Kurdallah) and Solanum dubium fruit (Gubain) with a focus on efficiency in cells toxicity and their impact on reduction of blood sugar and their activities on blood lipid profile. M.pseudopetalosa was chosen for investigation to assess scientifically the herbalist claims of its use to treat diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, and chest infections. S.dubium was investigated because eight other species of Solanum were proved for their antidiabetic effect. Limited studies had been carried on the two plants but encouraging for further investigation as the present study aimed. Methods: Methodologies followed include in vivo and in vitro investigation of the effects of the ethanolic extracts of the two plants on laboratory animals. Glucose tolerance test and rat hemi diaphragm were two methods used to check the effects of the extracts on rat blood glucose. Induced hyperlipidimic rats method was used to decide the effect of the extracts on blood lipid profile. DPPH method was used to check the antioxidant activity of the extracts. MTT and Brine shrimps methods were used to check the cytotoxicity of the extracts. Isolated tissues of different types from different laboratory animals were used to show the effect of the extracts on them. The two extracts were subjected for gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy to reveal the possibly available compounds. Phytochemical screening was carried to decide the available phytochemical groups in the two extracts. Results: M.pseudopetalosa (100mg/kg) allowed increase in blood sugar by a small percentage that did not exceed 9.6% compared with an increase 58.55%, 54% for the negative and positive control groups respectively. Co-administration of M.pseudopetalosa with insulin showed synergistic activity in promoting glucose uptake in rat diaphragm. Oral administration of S.dubium (100mg/kg) allowed increase in blood sugar to 30.75% in the first hour considered significant in comparison with positive and negative control group and perish down between the 2nd and 4th hour. Chronic dosing of either of the extracts to hyperlipidimic induced rats caused reduction in lipid profile in a pattern similar to that of atorvastatin with weakness in activity of M.pseudopetalosa on triglycerides. Reduction in body weight has also been noticed in groups administered either of the extracts or atorvastatin. Both plants showed inhibitory activity on a wide range of bacteriae and fungi with the lack of activity against the fungus Asparagellus niger. The anti-oxidant test (DPPH) showed activity 6% and 88% for M.pseudopetalosa and S.dubium respectively. Brine shrimp toxicity test showed high toxicity of up to 64.38% and 87.466% for each of the Maeua and Solanum respectively at LD50. (MTT) toxicity assay showed no toxicity of either of the extracts. Additon of both extracts caused contraction of frog Rectus abdominis, which was blocked by D-tubocurarine proving similar action of acetylcholine at nicotinic receptors. Addition of either extract to rabbit jejunum led to contraction which was limited or downturned by atropine addition. Experiment was repeated using virgin rat uterus getting same contractions with S. dubium which blocked by atropine to certify that the extract contain compounds of acetyl choline-like action on muscarininic receptors but caused no pronounced effect with M.pseudopetalosa. M.pseudopetalosa extract relaxed rat vas deferense in a dose dependent manner against the contraction produced by noradrenaline proveing alfa one antagonistic activity of M.pseudopetalosa. The aqueous fraction of S.dubium beyond other fractions markedly contracted isolated guinea pig ileum and been blocked by atropine. Phytochemical screening of both plant extracts showed their content of saponins, cumarins, alkaloids, tannins, falvonoids, sterol and triterpines with both being devoid of anthraquinones and cyanogenic glycosides. GC-MS scanning of M.pseudopetalosa extract and aqueous fraction of S.dubium, showed the presence of a wide variety of phytochemical compounds to which their pharmacological activities could be attributed. Conclusion: The two plants contain compounds with blood glucose lowering activity (glucose loaded rats and rat hemi diaphragm), lipid lowering (hyperlipidimic induced rats), antibacterial antifungal activity (Disc diffusion method), cytotoxic (Brine shrimps) and antioxidant activity (DPPH). They contain compounds with animal tissue modulating activities (isolated tissue models). Recommendation: Results of present study support continued use and further scientific validation of the selected plants. The two plants are promising for abortificient, prokinetic and cytotoxic drugs.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25357


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