University of Khartoum

The Bacterial Contaminants of Raw and Processed Beef andDetection ofNitrosamines and Residual Nitrite in Processed Beef in Khartoum State

The Bacterial Contaminants of Raw and Processed Beef andDetection ofNitrosamines and Residual Nitrite in Processed Beef in Khartoum State

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Title: The Bacterial Contaminants of Raw and Processed Beef andDetection ofNitrosamines and Residual Nitrite in Processed Beef in Khartoum State
Author: Fadoul, Omer Elfadel Alhaj
Abstract: This is a cross-sectional analytic study that investigated the bacterial genera and species associated with raw beef (RB) in local slaughterhouses and processed beef (PB) product in local meat processing plants (MPPs) in Khartoum, their conformity to the requirements of international and Sudanese standards adopted by World Food Programme, World Health Organization (WHO) and Codex Alimentarius. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine sodium nitrate antibacterial activity against contaminants of processed beef products and also to detect the level of residual nitrite in processed beef. A total of 140 fresh raw and processed beef samples were examined, 40 samples were collected from RB and 100 PB samples from four MPPs in Khartoum, 25 samples from each plant (5 samples per week). All PB samples were subjected to detection of level of residual nitrite whereas 40 samples from RB and 40 portions from 40 samples were subjected to bacteriological examination. Frequencies of isolation of bacterial isolates that included twenty-three genera which were isolated from RB, were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (65%), Aerococcus spp. (62.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (42.5%), Pasteurella multocida (42.5%), Micrococcus spp (40%), Salmonella spp (40%), E.coli (35%), Proteus vulgaris (32.5%), Acinetobacter spp (30%), Bordetella parapertucis (27.5%), Kurthia spp (22.5%), Streptococcus spp (22.5%), Corynebacterium ovis (17.5%), Listeria monocytogenes (17.5%.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%), Bacillus cereus (12.5%), Sterptobacillus spp (12.5%), Haemophilus spp (7.5%), Rothia spp (7.5%), Nocardia asteroids (7.5%), Aeromonas spp (2.5%) Alcaligenes faecalis (2.5%), and Hafnia alvei (2.5%).The bacteriological examination of PB samples revealed presence of S.aureus (82.5%), P.vulgaris (45%), E.coli (32.5%), B.cereus (32.5%), L.monocytogenes (7.5%), and P.aeruginosa (2.5%). The following bacteria, Proteus vulgaris, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomnas aerurginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for their sensitivity to sodium nitrate. They were found resistance to 96.5 % of sodium nitrite concentrations used while only 3.5% were sensitive. The levels of residual nitrite after processing in the ranges (in mg/kg) of 0.00-0.99 mg/kg .(49% of the samples), 1.00-1.99 mg/kg (25%) , 2.00-2.99 mg/kg (13%), 3.00-3.99.mg/kg (6%), 4.00-4.99 mg/kg (2%), 5.00-5.99 mg/kg (3%), 6.00-6.99 mg/kg (1%) and 7.00 mg/kg or more (1%) The residual nitrite levels in the PB products obtained from four MPPs were in compliance with the regulations of the European Union that specified, the amounts of nitrate allowed to be added to processed meat products i.e. 150mg/kg legal limits. The findings of this study are discussed; it was concluded that RB is heavily contaminated with commensal, opportunistic, pathogenic and some potentially pathogenic bacteria, happens to a lesser extent, in PB products. Bacterial species isolated from PB products are resistant to sodium nitrate, the level of nitrite content of PB products does not provide any health safety concern. It is recommended that slaughterhouses and personal hygiene should be improved as well as an antibacterial PB additive. Used further studies on meat bacteriological and chemical analysis and on different epidemic-logical aspects of nitrosamines presence in meat are urgently required.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25360


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