University of Khartoum

Phenotypic and Genotypic Identification of Bacterial Isolates on Sudanese Banknotes and their antibiotic Resistant Pattern

Phenotypic and Genotypic Identification of Bacterial Isolates on Sudanese Banknotes and their antibiotic Resistant Pattern

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Title: Phenotypic and Genotypic Identification of Bacterial Isolates on Sudanese Banknotes and their antibiotic Resistant Pattern
Author: Ahmed, Noha Ahmed Abd Alfadil
Abstract: Background: Sudanese currency paper notes are highly handled article under a variety of personal and environmental conditions. They may be contaminated by antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria and serve as a vehicle for infectious diseases transmission. This study was conducted to identify bacterial isolates on Sudanese banknotes phenotypically and genotypically and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates towards commonly used antibiotics. Methods: This study was carried out using 135 samples of Sudanese currency notes of five different denominations {2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Sudanese pounds}, which were collected randomly from hospitals, food sellers, transporters and banks in Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman. The bacterial prevalence was determined using both culture-based techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. The sensitivity patterns of isolates towards commonly prescribed antibiotics were performed using the Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion. Antibiotics resistant genes of some isolates were detected using PCR techniques. Results: All of Sudanese currency notes were found to be contaminated with different species of bacteria. The predominant Gram-negative bacterium found in the studied notes was Klebsiella pneumoniae (23%), whereas the most Gram-positive isolate was Bacillus mycoids (15%). There was a significant relationship between the number of isolates and the currency denomination with p-value < 0.05 (The lower denomination showed higher contamination level). All examined isolates were resistant to Penicillins except Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella oxytoca. However, some strains were found to be sensitive to Amoxicillin and Co-amoxyclav. The isolates were found to be sensitive to Cephalosporins except some strains of Klebsiella oxytoca, Coagulase negative staphylococci and Serratia marcescens were found to be resistant to Cefuroxime and Cephalexin. Macrolides (Erythromycin and Azithromycin) resistant strains were detected. All Staphylococcus aureus isolates were Methicillin and Vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, multi-drug resistant strainswere recovered and strains harboring resistant genes (CTX-M and TEM) such as Escherichia coli, K.pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae,Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected in Sudanese currency notes. A total of 45 16S rRNA gene sequences determined in this study were deposited in NCBI to get accession numbers and 33 accession numbers were received. Conclusion: All studied Sudanese paper currencies were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria that may play a significant role in the transmission of bacterial infections. Some multi-drugs resistant strains were also detected.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25370


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