University of Khartoum

Palaeoenvrionment and Cultural Adaptations During Late Prehistoric Periods in Sudanese Desert West Nile: Between El Mahas Region and El Golied Plain

Palaeoenvrionment and Cultural Adaptations During Late Prehistoric Periods in Sudanese Desert West Nile: Between El Mahas Region and El Golied Plain

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Title: Palaeoenvrionment and Cultural Adaptations During Late Prehistoric Periods in Sudanese Desert West Nile: Between El Mahas Region and El Golied Plain
Author: Abdelrahman, Hamad Mohamed Hamdeen
Abstract: Palaeochannels, palaeolakes and that materials were found on them such animals remains is considered as one of important elements for studying the palaeoenvrionment and cultural adaptations of humans during prehistoric periods. This study was focus on palaeoenvrionment and cultural adaptations during late prehistoric periods in the western Sudanese Sahara. The field work were done on three main areas, El Ga’ab Depression, El Golied Palaeochannel, palaeochannels and wadis west of the Third Cataract Region, “ Koya, Tondi, Wadi Gorgod, Jebel Ali Barsi and Gammuffa”. For identified and tracing the palaeochannels two method were used, the first one, the geographic information system” GIS” with especially reference to the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission “SRTM” based on the Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and the archaeological survey to detect the animals remains and archaeological artifacts on these channels. Sixteen palaeochannels were discovered in Third Cataract Region, and four Depressions, three in western Third Cataract and one in the southwestern part of El Ga’ab Depression. In El Golied area a palaeochannel was discovered in western bank, and other five palaeochannels and one depression were reported in eastern bank. The animals remains collected were identified depending on anatomical features’ include: Cattle, Hippopotamus amphibius, Syncerus caffer, Diceros bicornis, Felis silvestris, gazella Dorcas, Struthio camelus, Crocodylus niloticus, Trionyx triunguis, Lates niloticus, Synodontis sp., Clarias sp., Pila ovata, Elliptica Etheria, Melanoides tuberculata, Lanistes carinatus, Limicolaria cailliaudi, Aspatharia sp., and bones fragments. These animals remains indicate the existence of grassy, open, savanna environment in area of study during early and middle Holocene, this environment has clear impact on prehistory cultures adaptations especially in their settlement patterns, tools and economy. There are many archaeological sites were discovered dating back to prehistoric and historic periods, which have varied in types such as, settlement sites, Wadi walls, graves, stone structures, hideouts, rock arts, rock gongs, cup-marks, tethering stones. These sites indicated there are many similarities with some differences between the study area and lower Nubia “Egyptian and Sudanese”, western Egyptian oasis, Libyan oasis, Selima oasis, Wadi Howar, Laqiya region, Megalake northern Darfur oasis, south Dongola reach “Karmakol, Karat, Tergis and El Melik groups”, Affad Basin and Fourth Cataract Region…etc and other sites in north, eastern and central Sudan. The similarity and differences can be observated in techniques lithic industries, pottery, tethering stones, rock art, stone structures…etc. That which indicates there are cultural unity in particularity cultural, both the environment and human play a major role for draw the similarity outlines and determine of the specific particularity in shapes and types... etc during late prehistoric periods in the western Sudanese Sahara. This study recommends, dating all samples, study the seasonal growth rings, soils and stratigraphy, archaeological, palaeoeccological survey will must be done in all Depressions and wadis which is situated on western part of the Third Cataract Region and El Ga’ab Depression, also that area situated between Wadi Howar and El Ga’ab Depression.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25626


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