University of Khartoum

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanol Extract of Guiera senegalensis Roots in Wistar Albino Rats

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanol Extract of Guiera senegalensis Roots in Wistar Albino Rats

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Title: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanol Extract of Guiera senegalensis Roots in Wistar Albino Rats
Author: Mobasher, Sara Awad Alnour
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of methanolic extractof Gueira senegalensisroots in the treatment of inflammation in Wistar albino rats. G. senegalensis roots were collected from natural habitat in North kordofan State, Sudan and were identified by expert botanists in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute (MAPRI), National Centre of Research (NCR) Khartoum.The plant material was dried under shed.Wistar albino rats weighing 100-150g of both sexes were used. The animals were obtained fromMAPRI, (NCR) Khartoum.The animals reared for more than one month in cages in the Laboratory Animal House in the College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, and were maintained under standard environmental condition. The animals were provided with standard diet containing several nutrients and free access of water. Rats were acclimatized before experimentation for at least 7 days to laboratory condition.Twenty five rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Group I was served as control and received distilled water only (1ml/100g). Group II, was kept standard anti-inflammatory drug and the rats were givendiclofenac sodium 10mg/kg.Group III was administrated G. senegalensis roots methanol extract at a dose 100mg/kg orally.Group IV was administrated G. senegalensis roots methanol extract at a dose 200 mg/kg orally.Group Vwas administratedG. senegalensis roots methanol extract at a dose 400 mg/kg orally.The anti- inflammatory effect was assessed on acute and chronic models by using carrageenan induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively,in rats. The acute model was compared with diclofenac sodium as standard drug in a dose of 10 mg/kg and methanol extract of G. senegalensis roots in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg.The paw size was measured at 0 hours (before carrageenan injection), 1, 2, and 3 and 4 hour after carrageenan injection, whereas in chronic model methanol extract of G. senegalensis in two doses 200 and 400 mg/kg was used. The animals were anaesthetized with ketamine anaesthesia (50 mg/kg). Subcutaneous implantation of sterile cotton pellets (20 mg) was done in lumber region to induce chronic inflammation. The plant extract and standard drug were administered per os for 6 consecutive days from the day of cotton pellet implantation.On the 7th day,the cotton pellets were removed surgically, dried at 60˚C for 24 hours until a constant weight was obtained and weighed. Blood constituents and enzymes activity were measured. Also histopathological study was done. Data was expressed as the mean ± SEM. Differences between experimental groups was compared by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result was considered statistically significant when P<0.05. In acute inflammatory model, oral administration of methanol extract of G. senegalensis roots has significantly inhibited the paw oedema induced by carrageenan compared with negativecontrol. The inhibition of oedema by methanol extract of G. senegalensis roots at dose of 400 mg/kg (66.61%) was better than dose 200 mg/kg (39.7%) and dose 100 mg/kg (35.47%). Moreover, the inhibition of diclofenac sodium (standard drug) was the best (75.56%) compared with different doses of extract. In cotton pellet granuloma method, methanol extract of G. senegalensis roots reduced significantly granuloma formation. Diclofenac sodium showed most inhibition rate (41.71%) compared with dose of 400 mg/kg (17.42%) and 200 mg/kg (21.27%) of methanolic extract of G. senegalensis roots, which was associated with insignificant change in haematological parameters as well as the activities of Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as compared with negativecontrol. Sections of subcutaneous tissue showed infiltration of inflammatory cells like neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages, fibrin deposition and presence of fibroblast indicated the reaction of extract in the body compared with negativecontrol group. Phytochemical screening of G. senegalensis roots methanolic extract, revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, serols and triterpens. The plant material was devoid of cumarins, alkaloids, anthraquinone and cyanogenic glycosides. This study showed that the extract of G. senegalensis roots was effective in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. The study recommended conducting more studies to isolate, identify and characterize the active ingredient(s) responsible of the anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of G. senegalensis roots.
Description: 71 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25636


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