University of Khartoum

نقد المدرسة السلوكية للثنائية الديكارتية: دراسة في فسلفة علم النفس

نقد المدرسة السلوكية للثنائية الديكارتية: دراسة في فسلفة علم النفس

Show full item record

Title: نقد المدرسة السلوكية للثنائية الديكارتية: دراسة في فسلفة علم النفس
Author: محمد, سهل احمد العبيد
Abstract: This research aims to investigate the emergence and development of the basic idea in the philosophy of Rene Descartes; that is, his psychophysical dualism and the evident relation and interaction he drew between a mental soul and a material body. It further looks in the behaviourists’ denial of such Cartesian ideas, thus, ushering the principal concern of this research, which is the critique of criticism. To give a lucid analysis and explanation of the two envisaged ideas and positions of the two schools of Cartesianism and behaviourism, the research adopts the content analysis method and relies on the reference works of philosophy, books, university theses and periodicals. In the outset the research considered the philosophical principles of behaviourism in terms of the rise and the most notable philosophers who adopted this trend. Next, the research explores the psychological principles of the Cartesian dualism, considering the great similarity between the two beginnings in view of the fact that psychology is part of philosophy and it has not been detached from it except around the latter half of the nineteenth century. The research then tackled the most prominent pioneers of the behaviourist school, their views and impact as well as the influence of the school with the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov in his experiments with animals. John Watson, the founder of behaviourism, had been most favourably impressed by the work of I. Pavlov, in addition to Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner. Likewise, the research considered the last and the contemporary behaviourist philosopher who is Ludwig Wittgenstein. The research also conducted an analysis of the dualism of Descartes who is considered the father of modern philosophy, and his views on the existence of the body and mind. Based on the mechanical philosophy of the time, Descartes made a sharp distinction between mind and body in an effort to reconcile the mechanistic science of his day and religion at that time. The research discussed his method in general, i.e. skepticism, the mathematical treatment of nature, experimental and deductive traditions, with reference to the views of the most prominent philosophers who belong to his philosophical current. The research then considered the main criticism which was raised by the behaviourist school against the Cartesian dualism on the level of the relation and interaction between a mental soul and a material body, and on the level of the analysis of the personality concept as will be caused by each of the dualism and behaviourism. Finally, the research tackled the analysis of the dualism and its criticism by the behaviourism on the level of the ethics and the moral standards, considering them the highest outcome which both of the philosophical research and the psychological research alike will get to. The most salient finding of the research is the prove that dualism is more nearly close, than behaviorism, to the reality of the heavenly religions and the reality of the human innate character
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25847


Files in this item

Files Size Format View

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record

Share

Search DSpace


Browse

My Account