University of Khartoum

Quality Attributes of Juice Concentrate of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) Grown in Sudan

Quality Attributes of Juice Concentrate of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) Grown in Sudan

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Title: Quality Attributes of Juice Concentrate of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) Grown in Sudan
Author: Mohamed, Khalid Abdelrahman Gadein
Abstract: The objectives of this work were directed towards the study of suitability of Sudanese tamarind (tamarindusindica) fruits pulp for production of concentrated juices and to establish the effect of different processing steps on products qualities and storage stability.The processing operation included; extraction and concentration. Different techniques (normal atmosphere and under vacuum) and process conditions (low and high temperature) of these processes were considered. Their effects on process efficiency and product qualities were established, different concentrates were produced (55 and 45%). Effect of storage temperature (25 and 4 ºC) and storage duration (2, 4, 6 and 8months) were studied for Tamarind juices concentrate stored in plastic bottle.The results showed that the tamarind pulp had ability to bind water (45.49% water holding capacity) and proved to have good emulsifying properties (1.18 Emulsifying StabilityES) and poor foaming capacity (6.17%), chemical composition of tamarinds fruit pulp and seed kernel were 12.73, 7.98 % moisture content, 0.80, 3.82 % oil content, 4.33, 2.16 % ash content, 3.41, 22.25 % fiber content, 6.42, 7.90 % protein content, 62.31, 55.89 % carbohydrate content. Mineral content of tamarind pulp and whole seed were Sodium (350, 130 ppm), Calcium (1501, 680 ppm), Phosphorous (1150, 140 ppm), Iron (90, 20 ppm), Sulfur (610, 410 ppm), Potassium (1666, 4640 ppm) and Magnesium (5960, 4160 ppm) respectively.The extraction rate was found to increase with fruit/water ratio. The optimum ratio was found to be 1: 4 and maximum total soluble solids (TSS) obtained were 8.70 º. The concentration techniques and TSS affect chemical component of tamarind juice concentrate (TJC). Samples of concentrated juices produced at atmospheric pressure had higher values in moisture content, oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content. The concentration techniquesand TSS also affect the nutritional value of tamarind juices concentrate. Concentration of 55% were found to be higher in calories than concentration of 45%, TJC produced by open pan under normal atmosphere at concentrationof 55% were found to have higher nutritional value (265.59 Kcal, 1111.23 kJ).The results showed that the juices produced by all means of concentration were free from bacteria (total, coliform and spore forming) yeast and mold were in low count (cfu/ml) throughout storage periods.The sensory evaluation result showed that flavor, taste , color and over all acceptability of concentrated juices produced at atmospheric pressure had higher score within all storage periods tested than the juices produced under vacuum, juices stored at refrigerator were more preferred by panelist than that stored at room temperature.Samples of tamarind juices concentrate that were concentrated at atmospheric pressure were excellent andhashigher qualityproperties than juices concentrated at under pressure (vacuum). There was significant difference (P≥ 0.05) between juice samples stored in refrigerator and at room temperature. The concentration by theatmospheric pressure found the best concentration techniques, the best crude tamarind concentration is 12%, the best concentration is 55%, tamarind fruits are recommended to be used for juice manufacturing at commercial scale, reduces acidity of tamarind fruit juiceimprove its processing potentialities
Description: 196 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/25890


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