University of Khartoum

Anti-inflammatory Activitiy of Ethanolic Extract of Menthaviridis and Syzygiumaromaticum in Rats

Anti-inflammatory Activitiy of Ethanolic Extract of Menthaviridis and Syzygiumaromaticum in Rats

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Title: Anti-inflammatory Activitiy of Ethanolic Extract of Menthaviridis and Syzygiumaromaticum in Rats
Author: Naser, Dalia Jafer Khalil
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the anti- inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Menthaviridis)Nanaa) leaves and Syzygiumaromaticum (Grunful) fruits; as well as to assess the toxicity of the ethanolic extract of the two plants . All experiments were conducted in Albino rats .6 experiments were performed; 3 experiments in M. viridis and 3 experiments in S. aromaticum. In each plant extract, the anti-inflammatory activity was performed in the acute form and in the chronic formand the safety potential of each plant was examined. For investigating the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of M. viridis leaves and S. aromaticum fruits in the acute inflammation; 60 albino rats were used. For each plant extract; 30 rats were used, arranged into 5 groups; 6 rats in each group, (control+ formalin+ indomethacin + two treated groups). Group (1) and (2) were given normal saline 1 ml/rat; group (3) was treated orally with 10 mg /kg of Indomethacin (Standard anti-inflammatory drug) and groups (4) and (5) were orally treated with 250 and 500 mg /kg body weight of ethanolic extract of M. viridis or S. aromaticum respectively, 1 hour later all groups except group (1) were injected subcutaneously with 0.2 ml of formalin 1% at subplanter region of hind paw of rats. The activity of the two plant extracts was assessed by measuring the diameter of the hind paw for assessment of edema size that caused by formalin at 3, 6 and 24 hours as well as calculating the inhibition percentage at the same hours intervals. Histopathology of the foot paw at site of injection was examined. Total white blood cell count and differential counts were recorded. For assessment of activity of the ethanolic extract of M. viridis and S. aromaticum fruits in the chronic inflammation. 72 albino rats were used. For each plant extract, 36 rats were arranged into 6 groups, 6 rats in each group (control+formalin + indomethacin + three tested groups). Group (1) and (2) were given normal saline 1ml/rat/day, group (3) was treated with 10mg/kg/day of Indomethacin orally while group (4), (5) and (6) were orally treated with 50, 100 and 250 mg/ kg/day of ethanolic extract of M. viridisor S. aromaticum respectively , 1 hr. later, all individuals groups except group (1) were injected subcutaneously with o.2 ml of formalin 1% at subplanter region of hind paw of rats at day 1 and day 3.The dosing of Indomethacin and the plant extract was continued for 10 days. The diameter of the hind paw was measured for assessment of edema size at days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, as well as inhibition percent was calculated at days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. All animals were slaughtered under anesthesia and specimens of the foot paw at site of injection were taken for histopathology, blood was taken for determination of white blood cells and differential count. For testing the safety potential of M. viridisleaves and S. aromaticum fruits, 40 rats were used, 20 rats for each plant extract, divided into 4 groups. The control group (group 1) was treated orally with normal saline and groups 2,3 and 4 treated orally with the ethanolic extract of the plant at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day respectively, for 10 days. For assessment of safety potentials of the two plants, biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, total protein, albumin, urea and creatinine), heamatological parameters (Hb, PCV RBC, WBC, MCV, MCHC) and histopathology of liver, kidney, heart, spleen and intestine were examined. The results of administration of ethanolic extract of M. viridis in acute inflammation, showed significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3, 6 and 24 hrs., the inhibition percentage was 60, 73.4 and 76.4% respectively in group 2 , and it was 75.1, 77.5 and 82%, respectively,in group 3, compared to formalin (non- treated) group while the standard drug, Indomethacin, showed the higher percentage of edema inhibition that scored 78, 80 and 84%respectively. In the treated groups, the total white blood cells count and granulocytes decreased significantly (p≤0.05) with dose dependent manner, compared to the formalin group. Histopathology of the foot paw at site of formalin injection, revealed decreased in infiltration of inflammatory cells compared to the formalin group. The effect of the ethanolic extract of M. viridisinthe chronic inflammation, revealed inhibition percentage at days, 1, 3,5,7 and 9; of 71.1, 74.5, 75,100 and 100% in group4, respectively, while in group 5, it was, 76.9, 76.4, 80.9 ,100,and 100% and in group 6, it was 78.8, 80.3, 83, 100 and 100, respectively. White blood cells count and differential counts decreased significantly ((p≤0.05) in the treated groups, compared to the formalin (non-treated) group with best improvement at high dose (250 mg/kg). Histopathologically, the foot paw showed lesser inflammatory infiltration in the treated groups compared to non - treated group (formalin group). For assessment of safety measures, administration of M. viridisat doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, for 10 days, showed no toxicological effects as it verified by normal biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, total protein, albumin, urea and creatinine as well as normal hematological parameters including, Hb, PCV, RBCs, MCV, MCH and MCHC and histopathology of liver and kidney sections, showed, no pathological changes. The results of administration of the ethanolic extract of S. aromaticumfruits in acute form at the high dose (500 mg/kg), showed significant inhibition percentageof 73, 74.1 and 75.5% at 3, 6, and 24 hrs.respectively,while the inhibition rates of the dose 250 mg/kg, was63,72 and 72%, respectively, and that of the standard drug, was 76, 80 and 83%. In the Chronic form of inflammation the ethanolic extract of S. aromaticumat the higher dose (250 mglkg), showed higher inhibition percentage of 74, 77, 80, 100 and 100% at days 1,3, 5, 7 and 9 respectively, the same group, showed best improvement in the values of total white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and platelets compared to the formalin group. On microscopy, the inflammatory infiltrations at the edema site decreased significantly (p≤0.05) in the treated groups, compared to formalin group with higher improvement at the higher dose.The anti-inflammatory effect at the lower doses 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg was lesser than the higher dose. No toxicological effects were recorded at 250,500 and 1000 mg/kg of S. aromaticumas manifested by normal values of biochemical, hematological and histopathological examinations. It is concluded that, the ethanolic extract of M. virdis leaves and S. aromaticumfruitspossess anti-inflammatory constituents against inflammation that induced by formalin and the activity of ethanolic extract of M. virdis was better than that of S. aromaticum. The study also concluded that, both plant extracts showed no toxicity at the doses used
Description: 102 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/26078


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