University of Khartoum

Detection of Plasmodium Falciparum resistance genes associated with Chloroquine and Fansidar in South Khartoum and Eastern-Sudan

Detection of Plasmodium Falciparum resistance genes associated with Chloroquine and Fansidar in South Khartoum and Eastern-Sudan

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Title: Detection of Plasmodium Falciparum resistance genes associated with Chloroquine and Fansidar in South Khartoum and Eastern-Sudan
Author: Gism-Elseed, Linda Abbasher Mahmoud
Abstract: Background: Drug resistance has been a major obstacle in malaria reduction. Plasmodium falciparum has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimalarial employed and implementing molecular markers for monitoring the drug resistance may be essential to overcome the problem. The overall aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drugs resistant coding genes in Plasmodium falciparum parasite in areas of marked seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in southern Khartoum and eastern Sudan. Material and Methods: The study has examined prevalence of 5 genes implicated in P.falciparumdrug resistance: the chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), dihydrofolatereductase(dhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and multi-drug resistance (pfmdr-1) among parasite populations in Daraweesh village in eastern Sudan and in Mayo Camp in the capital Khartoum. Samples were collected form positive film malaria patients in day one before treatment and followed to the third day of treatment. Only patients with treatment follow up in the third day were included within the research. Twenty six blood samples from Daraweesh village and 66 samples from Mayo Camp were collected and examined for Pfcrt, Pf-mdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhpsgenes using PCR and DNA sequencing. Result: Chloroquine resistance genes (Pfcrtand Pfmdr1) showed consistent increase in frequencies in Mayo camp isolates. single and double mutant genotype (NLFWSND, YLYWSND, and YLFWSND) were detected in high prevalence in Pfmdr1 (P. value 0.03). Moreover, Pfcrtthe triple genotype were dominant (CVIET), and all isolates harbored mutation at codon 76T. 69.2% of Daraweesh village isolates carried single mutant genotype CVMNT in Pfcrt gene. Single mutant genotype in Pfmdr1 gene was found in low frequency YLYWSND while NLFWSND was in a high prevalence. 84.6% of the isolates carried the sensitive allele at 581A and 70% isolates carried the mutant allele at 437G and 540E at the dhpsgene in Daraweesh village, while in Mayo camp, 13.6% of the isolates harbored the mutant Alleles 436A\F, 60% of the isolates were mutant at 437G and (47%) isolates harbored the mutant allele 581G. The alleles 540K and 613A were wild in the all isolates. Dhfrin Daraweesh village the pyrimethamine resistance genotype (ICNI) was the highest and observed in 57.7% of the isolates. Double mutant IRSI and single mutant genotype ICSI were found in 7.7% and 11.5% of the isolates respectively.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/26118


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