University of Khartoum

Levels of Sodium Nitrite in Processed Meat in Khartoum Locality

Levels of Sodium Nitrite in Processed Meat in Khartoum Locality

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Title: Levels of Sodium Nitrite in Processed Meat in Khartoum Locality
Author: Hassan, Wissam Abdullatif Abdallah
Abstract: Background: Sodium nitrite is a meat coloring substance that is usually added to meat products and has antimicrobial activity, thus extending the shelf life of chilled meat, but not in the case of freezing. Sodium nitrite has two purposes, one of that is to repair the red color in the meat products, giving it a pinkish-red color, and preventing its color from turning brown. The other is that it prevents the growth of microorganisms - especially clostridia–that may cause health problems. The addition of sodium nitrite to meat is a blessing as it is a curse. It has been shown that, regardless of its benefits as a microbial inhibitor and color stabilizer. The consumption of excess sodium nitrite results in the formation of cancer by forming compounds known as nitrosamine, and also triggers a disorder called methemoglobinemia thatcan lead to a fatal end. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum Locality during the period from March to May 2017 to determine levels of sodium nitrite in processed meat. Thirtysamples (10 Sausages, 10 Hotdogs and 10 Mortadella) were taken in a statistical method from the plants and analyzed using the spectrophotometer method at the National Public Health Laboratory to determine the levels of sodium nitrite. Ten grams of each sample (processed meat) was put in a conical flask and distilled water (at 80-100oC) wasadded.Borax solution was gradually added to extract the nitrite from processed meat. Activated charcoal powder was then added to meat samples to absorb other artificial colours. More of borax solution was added to the samples to ensure that all nitrite was extracted from processed meat samples. Then a mixture of zinc acetate and potassium ferrocyanide hydrate wasadded to the processed meat to remove all the other chemicals and leave the nitrite only then filtered. Then the sulfonamide (Buffer) with the Naphthyl Ethylene Diamine(NEDA) sulfawas added to the final filter mixture - that reacts with the nitrite to give the red color - depending on the nitrite concentration. Theconcentration of nitrite was readby spectrophotometer (Pearson et al., 1976). Results: Most of the samples (87%) revealed the presence of sodium nitrite. Samples of sausage showed 8% sodium nitrite as the highest percentage and 0.28% lowest percentage and did not appear in four samples of sausage. Hotdog samples showed the highest sodium nitrite content of 11% and the lowest as 0.59%. Furthermore, samples of Mortadella showed the highest percentage of sodium nitrite 8% and lowest as 4%. Conclusion: Most of the meat samples produced in the Khartoum district analyzed revealed the presence of sodium nitrite - but in accordance to the limits stated bynational regulations. This requires continuation of health monitoring and increased awareness among consumers generally towards the risks of the long-term accumulative effect of sodium nitrite, which results from overconsumption. The research also recommends increasing the use of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is added to the processed meat product because of its beneficial effect in reducing the formation of nitrosamine.
Description: 69page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/26142


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