University of Khartoum

Quality of Gluten Free Bread from Corn and Potato Starches with Xanthan Gum

Quality of Gluten Free Bread from Corn and Potato Starches with Xanthan Gum

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Title: Quality of Gluten Free Bread from Corn and Potato Starches with Xanthan Gum
Author: Hamad, Fatima Abdelrahman Mubashar
Abstract: Gluten is a protein of wheat, barley, rye and oatthat causes allergy for celiac disease patients. This work aimed to produce and evaluate gluten free bread The gluten free bread was basically made with two types of starch with different ratios (corn starch: potato starch). By adding sorghum flour and pigeon pea flour as a protein source with constant ratio 10% for each, the hydrocolloid used was 1% xanthan gum (a polysaccharide with wide variety of uses, commonly as food additives it is a powerful thickening agent and also used as stabilizer to prevent ingredients from separating, derived its name from the strain of bacteria used in this Xanthomonascampestris). All raw materials were prepared and subjected to: proximate analysis, minerals contents (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium) and anti-nutritional factors (tannins, phytic acid and polyphenols). All results of proximate analysis, minerals content and anti-nutritional factors showed significant (p ≤0.05) difference. The results showed that protein content of pigeon pea flour and sorghum flour was 14.09% and 9.92% respectively. However, the results of anti-nutritional factors showed that decortication of pigeon pea significantly (p≤0.05) decreased tannins, phytic acid and polyphenols contents from 0.239, 42.35, 155.64 to 0.042, 28.41, 113.12 (mg/100g) respectively. Three blends were formulated from raw material with different ratios, 40%:40%, 60%:20% and 50%:30% corn starch: potato starch, respectively. Commercial gluten free flour was used as control. The blends and control were subjected to proximate analysis, minerals content and anti-nutritional factors. The results of proximate analysis showed significant (p≤0.05) difference between all blends and control in all parameters (moisture, ash, oil, crude protein, crude fiber and carbohydrate). Results of minerals content showed significant (p≤0.05) difference. Using sorghum flour and pigeon pea flour in blends increased protein content to 3.59%, and crude fiber to 1.75%, compared to 4.40% protein content and 3.60% crude fiber in control sample. The effect of corn starch and potato starch on bread specific volume (cm3/g) was studied it was found that the addition of corn starch had positive effect on bread specific volume, however, the result showed that the bread made from blends 50%:30% and 60%:20% had better specific volume 2.60 and 2.57 than the bread made from control flour was (2.41cm3/g) respectively. the gluten free breads made from the above three blends and control were further subjected to physical and sensory evaluation. The results of sensory evaluation showed significant (p≤0.05) difference in all parameters (color, odour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) between control and other blends. Generally, the ratio of 50% and 60% corn starch, 30% and 20% potato starch for the recipe gave good results of gluten-free bread. Then it’s recommended to produce gluten free flour from local materials grown in Sudan
Description: 81 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/26499


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