University of Khartoum

The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fruits, Seeds and Seeds Oil of Three Different Fruit Shapes of Local Sudanese Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne)

The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fruits, Seeds and Seeds Oil of Three Different Fruit Shapes of Local Sudanese Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne)

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Title: The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fruits, Seeds and Seeds Oil of Three Different Fruit Shapes of Local Sudanese Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne)
Author: Ali, Salwa Ali Mohamed
Abstract: Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) is one of the most important vegetable crops that provide various nutritional, medicinal and economical values from its mature fruits as well as seeds. The study aimed to investigate the morphological characteristics of pumpkin fruits, physical and chemical properties of fruits, seeds and seed oil of local Sudanese pumpkin. Thirty pumpkin fruits representing three different dominant shapes namely: round, elongated and bell-shape were collected in January 2016 from a farm in Eltomat village (Elgadarif state). The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out using SAS statistical software (SAS, 1999; version 9.4). Morphological characteristics of pumpkin fruits were evaluated by measuring some quantitative variables {fruit and seed length, fruit and seed width, fruit weight, flesh and seed thickness, number of seeds per fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 100-seeds and some qualitative variables e.g. the fruit and seed color}. The pumpkin seeds were air-dried at room temperature and pounded to fine powder. The oil was extracted from the pounded seeds using cold and hot extraction method. The extracted oil was subjected to some physical (viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index and oil content) and chemical (peroxide value, acid value, pH, saponification, unsaponifiables, iodine value and fatty acid content) characteristics. As well, some chemical characteristics of fruit flesh (carotenoids content, and total polyphenol content (seeds and flesh) and total soluble solids were also evaluated. Results revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in all morphological characteristics of pumpkin fruits and seeds among the three fruit shapes. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in fruit length and diameter among the three fruit shapes. Furthermore, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in seed thickness, seed weight and weight of 100-seeds of pumpkin seed between the three fruit shapes. There were no significant differences in fruit weight, flesh thickness, seed length, seed width, and number of seeds per fruit. However, there was a wide variation in the color of the fruit and seed of different fruit shapes. Additionally, the results showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in some physical and chemical properties of pumpkin seed oil between the three fruits shapes. The physical properties showed no significant differences in viscosity, specific gravity and refractive index of pumpkin seeds oil between the fruit shapes. Moreover, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in oil content of the seeds between the fruit shapes. Regarding the chemical characteristics of pumpkin seeds oil showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in peroxide, saponification, unsaponifiable matter, and iodine values between the fruit shapes, while it showed no significant differences in acid value and pH. Also, there were no differences observed in unsaturated fatty acids composition of pumpkin seeds oil between the three fruit shapes. The main unsaturated fatty acid in seed oil of the three pumpkin fruit shapes was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid. There were no significant differences in total carotenoids, total soluble solids of pumpkin fruits flesh between the three fruit shapes, while there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in total polyphenols content of flesh and seeds of pumpkin fruit between the three fruit shapes. It was data concluded that there were morphological differences between the three pumpkin fruits shapes and some differences in physical and chemical properties of fruits seeds and seed oil. This study encourages, more scientific research and studies for different Sudanese landraces of pumpkin seed oil for assessment of medicinal (as supplementary drug) or nutritional values.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/26615


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