University of Khartoum

Composting of Farmyard and Chicken Manures through Aerobic, Anaerobic, Forced Aeration and Vermin Processes

Composting of Farmyard and Chicken Manures through Aerobic, Anaerobic, Forced Aeration and Vermin Processes

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Title: Composting of Farmyard and Chicken Manures through Aerobic, Anaerobic, Forced Aeration and Vermin Processes
Author: Mohamed, Asia Khidir Elmahadi
Abstract: This study was carried out at the Demonstration Farm, Agricultural Research Corporation, Shambat, Khartoum North, Sudan in 2014/2015 and 2015 /2016 seasons. The objective was to come up with a compost preparation procedure to improve the quality of the compost and hence crop productivity. Farmyard (FYM) and Chicken (CHM) manures were collected from the Top Farm and the Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, respectively and were mixed at a ratio of 10:1 (FYM:CHM) and moistened to 50% of their volume. The mixed material was divided into four parts and composted into four preparations; aerobic, forced aeration at the rate of 10 CFM, anaerobic (buried in 90cm auger holes) and vermin (1kg vermin/2kg organic matter). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD). The composts prepared were sampled every month and analyzed for organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Microbiological examinations were made every month. Compost maturation was reached by reduced volume, brown color and crumbly with earthy smell. The best and appropriate time of opening compost was after three months. The results obtained showed that the best treatment was the aerobic, followed by forced aeration in the two seasons. The results illustrated that the bacteria population was significantly (P<0.05) different between the aerobic (82 µg/cm3) and the vermin (44 µg/cm3) treatments. The values of nitrogen (1.79%), phosphorus (0.48 mg/l), and potassium (1.12 mmol+/l) in the first season and values of nitrogen (1.71%), phosphorus (0.575 mg/l), potassium (0.85 mmol+/l ) in the second season were significantly (P<0.05) different in the two seasons in the aerobic treatment compared with other treatments, whilst potassium (0.86 mmol+/l) and phosphorus (0.398 mg/l) were significantly (P<0.05) lower for the anaerobic treatment in the first season. Soil samples were analyzed before planting and after harvesting the crop. Soil N (1.6%), P (6 mg/l) and K (1.0 mmol+/l) were increased significantly (P<0.05) due to treatments. According to the results obtained, the aerobic preparation method was the best method and the compost prepared by this method was used as an organic fertilizer in a field experiment under maize (Zea mays L) as an indicator crop. A set of three rates (2.5, 5 and 7.5 tons/ha) of the aerobic compost were applied in comparison with the control under field experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD). The aerobic compost rate of 5 tons/ ha had significantly (P<0.05) higher plant height , leaf number; stem diameter and grain yield compared with the other rates. It was concluded that the aerobic method of compost preparation is advocated for its easiness, high nitrogen and nutrients contents and positive effect on maize growth parameters and yield. However, further research work is needed to test longer time of forced aeration to reduce the time of compost maturity as the forced aeration came second to aerobic composting.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27016


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