University of Khartoum

Laboratory Evaluation of Ethanol and Water Extracts of Fruit and Leaf of Usher Plant (Calotropis procera ) Against The Larvae of Anopheles arabiensis

Laboratory Evaluation of Ethanol and Water Extracts of Fruit and Leaf of Usher Plant (Calotropis procera ) Against The Larvae of Anopheles arabiensis

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Title: Laboratory Evaluation of Ethanol and Water Extracts of Fruit and Leaf of Usher Plant (Calotropis procera ) Against The Larvae of Anopheles arabiensis
Author: Hamed, Mustafa Abdel Galil Idris
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of combating Anopheles arabiensis larvae by using ethanol and water extracts of Usher plant (Calotropis procera) fruits and leaves. An. arabiensis is the main vector which transmits malaria in Sudan and its control remains a real challenge. The hazards of the use of synthetic chemical insecticides are well-documented all over the world. These include: destruction of harmless and beneficial organisms in the environment, development of resistance by the targeted pests and vectors, toxicity to Man and / or his domestic animals beside high cost. This lead to an increasingly rising tendency to substitute conventional synthetic chemical insecticides with insecticides of plant origin. The latter is biodegradable, less contaminant to the environment and quite safe to Man and domestic animals. Fresh leaves and fruits of Usher plant were shade dried then separately ground into very fine powder using electric blender and a motor. 200g of Usher leaf powder were soaked in 500 ml of distilled water in one liter conical flask and an equal amount was soaked in 500 ml of ethanol. The same procedure was followed with Usher fruit powder. In each case the contents of flask were shaken at intervals for 24 hours before decanting and filtering. The solutions were converted to semisolid state by rotary evaporator .They were then lyophilized to solid extracts. Appropriate concentrations were prepared by dissolving known solid extract weights in known volumes. Laboratory bred An. arabiensis larvae were used in the present experiments. Bioassay was done through exposing third and fourth instar larvae to different Usher extract concentrations and counting mortality after 24 hours. In the present study ,bioassay of different Usher plant C. procera extract against An. arabiensis indicate strongly that the plant contains biolarvicide against the third and fourth instar larvae . The most potent extract is from Usher leaves (LC50 0.0174 mg/L) when ethanol alcohol was used as solvent .followed by Usher plant ehanolic extract from the fruits of the plant (LC50 0.02364 mg/L) . However, aqueous fruit extract showed very low potency as larvicide against An. arabiensis larvae . The result of the present study , suggests the possibility of the use of Usher extracts against An. arabiensis larvae in the field . However, pilot experiments in the field are necessary before extensive uses .
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27046


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